CHAPTER I . HIGHER EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA
In the eighties, the universities of Latin America were considered as the object of actions of counteracted demands tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. In the midst of the crisis, several programs were cut, losing the chance to finance extensive public education, soon afterwards, democratic changes offering the opportunity to recover, in university institutions, created social actions, so that new expectations would arise, especially in countries like Argentina and Uruguay, authoritarian countries were quite rude to the university. (RODRIGUEZ, 2007)
Higher education enrollment in the aforementioned countries has expanded considerably, especially under the government of Raúl Ricardo Raúl Alfonsín (President of Argentina 1983-1989) and Sanguinetti (President of Uruguay 1985-1990), respectively. Given the policies of unrestricted access in a short time, student enrollment has multiplied. In the case of Argentina, enrollment went from half a million students in 1983 to more than one million at the end of the decade, however, in Uruguay, enrollment went from thirty thousand to ninety thousand students in the same period. (RODRIGUEZ, 2007, p. 13)
Thus, the demand coverage plan reached the European countries, reaching 40%. Bolivia was one of the countries that reached the same phenomenon, in 1984 there were sixty thousand students enrolled and by the end of the decade it had already reached around one hundred thousand enrolled. (CONDERA, 2012)
In this way, most of the education in Latin America tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, managed to maintain the growth rate and still improve it, however, not all managed to reach the level of expansion of enrollment in developed countries. In some countries the increase in enrollment only happened after the liberalization of private higher education. (CONDERA, 2012)
In 1990, economic and social policies followed neoliberal ideas , however, at the end of this there was a disenchantment with neoliberal “formulas”, so there was no opportunity to reduce the rates of poverty and social exclusion in the region. In the middle of this century, the Latin American countries managed to recover the macroeconomic, and through it sustained political and economic stability. (MENDES, 2009)
In the second half of the century there was a government crisis in relation to the economic and social crisis. Countries became vulnerable even though in the ten year period prior to the international financial market. In view of these circumstances, voters favored “modernizing” proposals by choosing candidates that best fit the alternatives of a centrist character and close to the socialist and social democratic conceptions , as well as populist authoritarianism , following the model, of some president like Ricardo Lagos , in Chile; Alejandro Toledo, in Peru; Nestor Kirchner, in Argentina; Hugo Chaves, in Venezuela; Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, in Brazil, etc. (MENDES, 2009) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado
But despite these political changes, the neoliberal direction in the social field continued to prevail. Thus, the educational transformation process responds especially to the demands of the productive sectors, to prepare subjects for the world of work, and leaves aside fundamental aspects, such as the cultivation of solidarity, democracy, equality and the consecration of citizenship tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. (TOMMASI, 2011, p. 39)
Higher education in Latin America faced great political struggles in favor of freedom and democracy, was submerged in the face of uncertainty, being considered the object of criticism, mainly by sectors linked to the government and the business sector, it was an expensive institution, that is, “ elitist ”but was not considered productive. Some debates held in some countries have sought to adapt higher education institutions to the new social requirements. (TOMMASI, 2011)
Discussing the role of the university in the face of social demands encompasses the history of the Latin American university. However, it was in the nineties, of the twentieth century, that we faced a separation against university institutions, due to some sectors that were conservative as part of the neo-liberal privatists and that did not contest the demands of the globalized world. (CORAGGIO, 2009)
In this decade, the privatization of higher education in Latin America has surpassed the international trend, and has remained at a constant pace. Thus, in the course of the 1990s, the number of students enrolled in private universities increased from 30% to over 45%. This expansion of the private sector occurred mainly due to the creation of small establishments, which offer vocational education, but which in general lack postgraduate and research structures. (CORAGGIO, 2009, p. 16)
It is worth remembering that there are few higher education institutions in Latin America considered as universities that develop research on the subject, most of them are fundamentally institutions aimed only at teaching tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. (CORAGGIO, 2009)
1 .1. Panorama of Higher Education in Brazil
The purpose of this section is to present a brief history of the development of higher education in Brazil and the models and concepts existing in the world, with the purpose of providing an adequate reflection on its influences on the constitution of higher education institutions and the reflections on evaluative practices .
Durham (2005) points out two characteristics that marked the development of the higher education system in Brazil. The first characteristic refers to the late appearance of higher institutions, and the second, to the development, already at the end of the 19th century, of a private education system concomitant to public education. The author points out that the creation of the first autonomous schools of higher education in Brazil occurred in 1808 and is related to the arrival of the Royal Portuguese family, which fled the Napoleonic invasion.
During this period, three higher schools were founded: Surgery and Anatomy of Bahia (currently the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Bahia), and Anatomy and Surgery of Rio de Janeiro (today Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) and the Navy Guard Academy – RJ. It is worth noting that these schools were all subordinate to the Crown, contrary to what happened in some Latin American countries with Hispanic colonization, where the first Catholic universities existed in the 16th century.
In 1889, there were only 24 higher education institutions in Brazil (DURHAM, 2005), all of them constituted to serve a restricted elite and with the specific objective of training liberal professionals, with no investments at that time to build a academic structure to encourage research and scientific production tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.
With the proclamation of the Republic, this level of education was decentralized in Brazil. Thus, it was possible, according to Durham (2005), the emergence of new institutions linked both to the state and municipal public sectors, as well as to the private sector, especially confessional establishments.
Cavalcante (2000) also highlights this initial phase of the Republic and states that there was a renunciation by the Union of its monopoly on higher education, allowing States, through the 1891 Constitution, a vast autonomy, not only in relation to this level of education, but also at secondary level.
The new Constitution, elaborated after the proclamation of the Republic in 1889, by decentralizing higher education, favored the constitution of new institutions. In the period from 1889 to 1918, there were 56 new institutions, most of them private – confessional or private (DURHAM, 2005).
It was only in the 1920s and 1930s that the first Brazilian universities were created, all of them public, despite the occurrence of several projects proposed in the colonial and imperial periods, all of which were unsuccessful.
Although we observed a growth in Higher Education Institutions in the last decade of the 19th century and in the first two decades of the 20th century, we can say that the increase in demand for university education was, to some extent, related to the development of industrial capitalism in Brazil, started in the 1930s; this broke with the rural oligarchic structures, determining new power and work relations, demanding a more adequate qualification of the society to attend the interests of the instituted industrial sectors tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.
During this period, we found an intense presence of private institutions, especially confessional ones, equivalent, in 1933, to approximately 44% of enrollments and 60% of educational establishments. Despite the significant expansion of the private sector in this period, the number of students enrolled in the entire system was very small – almost 34 thousand students. Between 1945 and 1960, the number of enrollments increased from approximately 41 thousand to 96 thousand students, that is, there was an increase of more than 100% (Census and Synopses of Higher Education Statistics MEC apud DURHAM, 2005, p. 205 ).
This development of higher education in Brazil, marked by the great increase in colleges, led, according to Cunha (2004), to the first discussions regarding the quality of teaching versus disorderly expansion of the system. The author also points out that in the period of the Populist Republic tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, the private sectors linked to higher education were benefited by the State.
The Populist Republic (1946/1964) showed the first face of the ambiguity of public policies by favoring the growth of the private sector in terms of new institutions created, in increasing its effect and in terms of aggregation in universities (CUNHA, 2004, p. 801).
Thus, in the 1920s, the first university in Brazil emerged – the University of Rio de Janeiro. It was born from the administrative junction of several existing colleges, and, according to Oliven (2005), it tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado
[…] it did not offer new alternatives to higher education, either in its objectives or in the way it works: it retained the purely professional orientation of the courses, the compartmentalization of faculties, the power structure supported by the chair, the elitist character of teaching; it remained oblivious to the needs of most of the Brazilian population, it did not encourage the development of science and technology (FÁVERO apud OLIVEN, 2005, p. 124) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.
Despite the creation of the first university in the early 1920s, the Brazilian Universities’ own statute was only created in 1931, by the then Prime Minister of Education in Brazil, Francisco Campos, with the objective of establishing some parameters for the new universities in the country . For this status, it was necessary that the institution had at least three faculties, among them: Law, Medicine, Engineering, Education, Sciences and Letters.
Although the University of Rio de Janeiro was the first university in the country, we can say that the creation of the University of São Paulo in 1934 was a milestone in the process of building the higher education system in Brazil. It was born out of an intense debate in society regarding the role of the university in the context of the social changes that were taking place at that time. This university was based on the Germanic model, also called Humboldtian , characterized by the inseparability between teaching and research and the provision of basic education through a unit organized specifically for this purpose.
According to its creators, the University of São Paulo (USP) “should play a fundamental role both in adapting democracy in Brazil, and in raising the country to the ‘level of the century’” (ORSO, 2007, p. 52).
In this sense, we observe the occurrence of a change of conception in relation to the schools, colleges and universities that existed until then, since the central objective of the University of São Paulo was not exclusively to offer professional training to its students, but rather, to become “an innovative force in society, capable of transforming men, renewing the face of the nation, making it free and just” (ORSO, 2007, p. 53).
Even with the change in conception and the innovations proposed by the creation of the University of São Paulo, it can be noted that between the years 1945 to 1964, Brazilian higher education continued to be characterized by the creation of new universities through the integration of colleges already existing and the federalization of a large number of establishments (OLIVEN, 2005). This process of reorganization of higher education in Brazil consolidated a model of higher education based on the provision of professional courses, in contrast to the model proposed by the University of São Paulo.
Against this dominant conception, in the mold of the University of São Paulo, in 1961, the University of Brasília (UNB) was founded. Its constitution took place without the incorporation of existing faculties and it presented itself as a model of university constituted by a more integrated, flexible and modern structure (OLIVEN, 2005). However, with the 1964 military coup and the 1968 university reform, UNB underwent a series of changes in its initial design.
The 1968 reform was responsible for several changes in higher education in Brazil. Among them, we highlight the end of the professorships, the breaking of the autonomy of the faculties, the introduction of the credit system, the failed proposal of the previous basic cycle of professional training and the expansion of enrollments in traditional courses, preserving the old concept of diploma professional and with the same type of education (DURHAM, 2000). However, it is emphasized that this reform established the university as the preferred model. In this way, isolated higher education establishments would be considered an exception to the model.
According to Neves (2003, p. 26),
[…] the new university would have to overcome the condition of a mere cluster of schools and colleges. It should be guided by the principle of inseparability from teaching and research, with the introduction of stricto sensu postgraduate work and academic training. Your organization would be structured into a system of departments that would avoid duplicating the use of resources and maximize specialization. In its conception, the 1968 Reformation denied, conceptually and politically, the possibility of forming differentiated institutional models.
Thus, the intention was to adopt the university as a preferential model, since the expansion of higher education at that time occurred predominantly due to the increase in isolated establishments, federations of schools and colleges maintained, above all, by the private sector, be it confessional or do not.
During this period, unlike the authoritarian governments of other Latin American countries, such as Chile and Argentina, which made substantial cuts in the budget of universities, the growth of the higher education system was promoted in Brazil in order to meet the progressive demand from the middle class and modern sectors of the economy, as well as from state technocracy (DURHAM, 2005).
Data on the evolution of enrollments by type of establishment show the significant increase in both students and private institutions in this period, going from around 350 thousand students in 1965 to around 1.4 million students. Furthermore, it was at that time that the private sector became the majority, corresponding in 1970 to 50.5% of the total enrolled in higher education institutions in the country (Census and Synopses of Higher Education Statistics MEC apud DURHAM, 2005, p. 205 ).
When analyzing the data from the decades following the 1968 Reform, it appears that between 1980 and 1990 there was a continuous growth, registering in 1998 more than 2 million students enrolled. Some causes for this significant increase were: urban expansion, the requirements for qualified labor for industry and commerce, as well as the expansion of the number of students in primary, junior high and high school, observed in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s , respectively (SOUZA, 1991).
Thus, the thematic axes of the 80s and 90s that involved higher education had a clear orientation towards content with a political dimension. The themes in these decades fell heavily on redefining the role of the university, its functions, its autonomy and democratization.
1 .2. The University Concept
The University, our object of investigation, is distinguished from other HEIs in that it has a scope and specialization that differs from the others, fundamentally due to the association between teaching, research and extension and the breadth of its autonomy.
Universities are characterized by offering regular activities of teaching, research and extension in an inseparable way, while University Centers are committed only to teaching and extension activities. Both enjoy administrative, financial and academic autonomy, but with a different scope, determined by the various legal provisions that discipline the matter (Federal Constitution of 1988, LDB of 1996, Decree 2.306 of 1997, Ordinance MEC 639 of 1997, Decree 5.773 of 2006) .
The determination of the university concept in this investigation involves both understanding what the university is and what it actually represents, considering a set of references that permeate, among others, the culture and the historical context in which the interpreters are inserted.
In this perspective, an important category of analysis that permeates all research is that which delimits the worldview proper to modernity, separating it from other ways of seeing and interpreting reality. The already stated paradigms of modernity thus conform certain convictions that give meaning and concreteness to the university, shaping its concept.
A fundamental paradigm of modernity is the sufficiency of reason, which implied giving up any prevention imposed by tradition and assuming as a criterion of truth what was clear and manifest to the attentive observer.
It is not necessary to go back on the whole path that founds modernity to understand the strength and importance of the arguments for refusing tradition and claiming free thinking for the realization of a civilization project that takes itself as a project as the climax or the end of the story.
By proposing as a foundation for true knowledge the abandonment of all tradition and the resumption of knowledge based exclusively on cogito, Descartes radicalizes the modern option in the philosophical field, giving the present a centrality that history has never before registered.
The undeniable advance in the accumulation of knowledge that the scientific method, inaugurated by modernity, gave to the stock of knowledge of humanity established other fundamental paradigms, including that of continuous and inexorable progress.
When we believe that there is a continuous progress of civilization, and that changes in all aspects of life, including with regard to institutions, are a natural result of this progress, we are led to understand that the experience of the present, as far as it is a result history of a process that is at the same time a progress, is constituted by the most improved forms of individual, collective, social, cultural and political life (SILVA, 2006, p. 287).
The concept of the university starts to prevail over what it represents, that is, its meaning within a historical-cultural context that considers the present as the apotheosis of the project of human civilization. It is less interesting to investigate and understand how the university effectively is and behaves and more to frame it, compartmentalize it in a conceptual becoming that limits its meaning to a reductionist view of the present.
The history of more than nine centuries of the university and its role in society is lost and fragmented by disregarding all the conflicts and fundamental contradictions for its development, which are essential to give quality to the effective contribution to humanity in the name of a low level adaptation to the demands of the present time.
This submission to the progress paradigm comments Silva (2006), imposes a limitation to idealism and to a utopian perspective of the university insofar as it abhors failure in the name of a sure attitude of conviction in full and virtuous natural development.
[…] allowing oneself to be led by the invisible hand of progress implies the adoption of instrumental and competitive rationality criteria. The boldness of this attitude is only apparent: we firmly believe that if we follow progress, we will not be at risk; this is the reason why we alienate and alienate our work at the proper pace of technical rationality and the totalitarian expansion of techno – science (SILVA, 2006, p. 292).
The author’s argument is that the university submits itself to an agenda that comes from outside, reconstituting its investigative, complex and daring identity in the name of orthodoxy that is imposed on it as natural and inexorable from the present time, conforming its features to those of other organizations and thereby deconstructing its institutional profile to give it another, organizational one.
Analyzes that coincide with the assumption by the university of an immediate profile are recurrent, aimed at presenting results in financial terms and offering quantitative measurable productivity indicators, thus submitting themselves to values determined by the market for organizations of a corporate nature. In line with this point of view, Silva affirms that “the procedure by which the University redefines itself today coincides entirely with its adaptation to the requirements of historical time: market, effective organization and productivist technicism” (SILVA, 2006, p. 293) .
The adoption of this university silhouette is in line with the organizational model that Chauí (2001) points out as typical of the university as an organization, to the detriment of that university as a social institution. For the author, the metaphor of the organization refers to the provision of services and the instrumentality inherent to companies that need to be guided by effectiveness, productivity, flexibility and adaptability.
Opposing this view, it presents the university as social institutions that aim at training in reflection, criticism and the democratic production of knowledge, therefore, necessarily legitimate and autonomous, with orders and rules determined by the academic community, without external interference.
The social institution aspires to universality. The organization knows that its effectiveness and success depend on its particularity. This means that the institution has society as its principle and its normative and evaluative reference, while the organization has only itself as a reference, in a process of competition with others that have set the same particular objectives (CHAUÍ, 2001, p. 219) .
These categories are also worked on by Trigueiro (1999), who, however, does not apply them with axiological content, taking universities both as organizations and as social institutions without distinction.
Regardless of the way in which the various researchers build their diagnoses about the university, despite their set of beliefs and convictions that shape their view and their interpretation of the observed reality, what calls attention is the incredible convergence to the idea of crisis that the university is going through today.
For a long time, the University represented one of the few social institutions that could think for the long term and act for it. However, at the moment when it is pressured to incorporate the profitability logic of what is invested and the productivity logic of what is accomplished, it has been forced to prioritize short-term projects (LIMA, 2002, p. 70).
The divergence appears exactly in the diagnosis of this crisis and, consequently, in the proposals aimed at overcoming it, insofar as, for some, the crisis is based precisely on the idea that the university institution and the business organization have become the same thing , while for others the crisis comes from not being more closely related.
Universities plunged into the crisis, largely lost their commitments to society, weakened the sense of mission, due to the privilege that companies acquired, while macroeconomic problems accumulated and the life of the population became more difficult (DIAS SOBRINHO, 2002, p. 21).
The authors make clear the idea that the university is in crisis precisely because it tries to modify its essence, abandon its historical role, seek to adapt to a current situation of prevalence of a certain market hegemony.
I sincerely fear that the growing option for the operational university will come to the detriment of the real university and may mean the option for the highly qualified “barbarian” as opposed to the highly qualified “citizen”, which is, in my opinion, what we should search (RISTOFF, 2002, p. 25).
The view of the crisis according to the authors who take their own time as that of the highest and most virtuous development of humanity’s culture and civilization is that it stems from the slowness with which the university adapts to new times and from resistance to necessary and desirable changes .
In the words of Silva (2006, p.295) , “the general meaning is very clear, and well in line with the times that are going on: the University would only be up to its time if it were completely adapted to it”.
The difficulty in adapting to major external changes, which require extensive changes in their traditional management, structure and internal rules of operation, is a fact that is quite evident in Brazilian public universities. There is a great gap, a gap, between new and continuous demands from society and the necessary responses from these universities, arising from the most diverse reasons (TRIGUEIRO, 1999, p. 42).
In the same vein, Castro says that “the issue today, therefore, is not whether to admit market behaviors and forces, but how, and what to do to ensure that competition results in quality and socially relevant higher education” (CASTRO, 2003, p. 317).
From the perspective of efficiency, the replacement of RJU is superimposed for a legal status that allows greater flexibility for public HEIs to carry out human resources policy. It is also necessary to install global budgets and an increasing importance of allocating public resources for performance and quality assessment, to the detriment of automatic (historical) budgets (SCHWARTZMAN, 2006, p. 283).
These authors’ views reveal their conviction in the naturalization of history and its inevitability, in such a way that they assert that the difficulties detected in universities result from their resistance to the necessary and inexorable change or to the production of methodologies that allow to bring to the academic life the assumptions of market and, through its virtues, promote quality gains. They also affirm the inevitability of reducing personnel costs and even determining financing mechanisms that are linked to performance and quality evaluation processes.
The emergence of a university in crisis demands educational reforms that promote the confrontation of the crisis. The view on reforms responds to the same axiological determinations that permeate the diagnoses, sometimes inclining to point out the reform model foreseen in the evaluation policies as promoters of the crisis, sometimes as timid attempts to resolve the same crisis.
It is not surprising that the concept of university that emerges in contemporary times, for better or for worse, establishes such a direct relationship with the market: either to affirm it or to deny it, the university is placed in its objectives and in its mission in view of the hegemonic values that make up the field of issues related to the market and its organizations.
The requirement that research imposes is to determine the university’s ethical commitment, with a view not to the market, but to the society that has the right to take the lead in this debate.
1 .2.1. Functions of the Brazilian University
The university emerged in the Middle Ages, in a moment of transition for humanity, when the “Europe of dogmas and feudalism started its course towards the revival of knowledge and scientific rationality, from feudalism to capitalism” (BUARQUE, 1994, p. 21) .
The university had the task of producing high culture and knowledge necessary for the formation of elites, having contributed to the advancement of knowledge. Over the centuries, society has undergone transformations as a result of its development that increasingly imposes new attributions on institutions of higher education in order to satisfy the social needs emerging from its own evolutionary process.
Technological development, initiated by the industrial revolution, has been one of the main factors to impose new challenges on the university, considering that it has brought economic and social consequences to the daily life of societies.
According to Demo (1994), education, and especially higher education in the modern world, takes on the meaning of the main strategy of innovation and human development, that is, education is placed by society as the condition for overcoming its problems.
Originally created to serve the elites and perpetuate their power through the production of high culture and exemplary knowledge, restricted to a select and small group, the university has been challenged to produce medium cultural standards and to train for work, open to demands of democratization and equal access to a larger part of society.
Santos (2001) looks back on the history of universities and identifies that the permanence in the objectives of these institutions was only shaken in the 1970s. Until then, its three main objectives were: research as the main objective; the university as a center of culture available for the education of man as a whole; the teaching of professional skills oriented towards integral training. In view of the pressures and transformations to which the university was subjected, the three ends became: research, teaching, service provision and social insertion. In this sense, the author records that there was an atrophy of the cultural dimension and began to privilege its utilitarian, productivist content, leading to a multiplicity of functions.
The 1987 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report assigned the university the following functions: general post-secondary education, research, provision of skilled labor , highly specialized education and training, strengthening the competitiveness of the economy, mechanisms selection for high-level jobs, social mobility for the sons and daughters of the less favored classes, provision of services to the local community, preparation for social leadership roles (OECD REPORT 1987 apud SANTOS, 2001).
In the analysis of this multiplicity of functions, the question of compatibility between them was raised. Some being contradictory to each other, points of tension were created:
This management of tensions has been particularly problematic in three areas: the contradiction between the production of high culture and the exemplary knowledge necessary for the formation of the elites that the university has been dealing with since the Middle Ages, and the production of medium and useful knowledge for the tasks of social transformation and in particular for the training of the qualified workforce required by industrial development; the contradiction between the hierarchy of specialized knowledge through restrictions on access and the accreditation of competences and the socio-political demands of democratization and equal opportunities; and, finally, the contradiction between the demand for autonomy in the definition of institutional values and objectives and the growing submission to criteria of effectiveness and productivity of origin and of a business nature (SANTOS, 2001, p. 190).
Faced with the need to manage these tensions, the crisis of the university took place, which sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos (2001) classifies into three types:
1 . hegemony crisis due to the growing intellectual lack of characterization, related to the contradictions between the university’s primary functions and those imposed on it in the 20th century (exemplary knowledge x functional knowledge);
2 . crisis of legitimacy in the face of the second contradiction of hierarchy and democratization, verified by the growing segmentation of the university system and by the non-fulfillment of the collective objectives assumed by the university with society;
3 . institutional crisis insofar as its model of organization has been questioned and organizational models of other types of institutions have been imposed on it, considered more efficient.
The crisis of hegemony was established as the question of the existence of compatibility between these functions and the idea of university founded on the free and disinterested investigation of knowledge was raised . According to the author, there are contradictions between the functions attributed to the university, which in itself hinder its feasibility . At this point, it is worth highlighting what in the author’s opinion is defined as the axis of the university’s duality, the dichotomous relationship between education and work.
Thus education, which was originally broadcast of high culture, the formation of character , way of acculturation and socialization appropriate to the performance of the direction of society, has also become education for work, school utilities knowledge, skills specialized techniques capable to respond to the challenges of technological development in the production space. On the other hand, work was initially a performance of physical strength in the handling of the means of production, it also became intellectual, qualified work, the product of a more or less prolonged professional training. Education split between general culture and professional training and work, between unskilled work and qualified work (SANTOS, 2001, p. 196).
The university’s attempt to respond to this new concept of teaching-work brought about the internal differentiation of higher education and the university. Alongside traditional universities, institutions emerged specifically for professional training.
The education-work relationship also results in a large increase in the university population, reflecting the multiplication of these educational institutions.
In view of the university’s inability to perform contradictory functions, society and the State are looking for alternative means to meet their needs. The university, seen as an institution resistant to the changes imposed on it – ends up suffering from government policies that promote reformulations in the higher education system, which segment the university system and, consequently , lead to a reduction in the financing of universities by the State.
The university starts to share with other institutions, in addition to training at this educational level, the financial resources received from the State.
The loss of funding by the State affects the university in its scientific and pedagogical autonomy, since it implies the freedom of investigation in which it is guided by the search for knowledge. The lack of funding is one of the main factors of the institutional crisis in the public university.
According to Santos (2001), this is a global movement and is part of a university policy project aimed at profoundly changing the way the public good of the university has been produced, transforming it into a vast field of valorization of educational capitalism.
Chauí (2003) explains that the public university, since its creation, was considered a priority of the State, being thus financed by society, constituting itself as a social institution. As a social institution, it reflected the way in which this society works, formed by a small elite with power and conducting a disadvantaged majority.
Social revolutions throughout the twentieth century changed the structure of society that started to operate within another economic, political and social logic. The so-called globalization process has been an essential condition for the worsening of the crisis in universities in the world. In the perspective of this process, education is placed as the capital itself. Passed to the status of commodity, education gains a new dimension that will have an impact on the ways in which educational policies are proposed worldwide.
1 .2.2. Templates C oncepções of E ducation S uperior
Over the centuries, universities have been transformed into pluralistic institutions that bring together many strands of history, either for their functions, objectives or resources. The resulting models and concepts have introduced operating logic that has met the socio-political needs of each community within its prevailing cultural order. Institutional evaluation has inevitably developed in the midst of situations that compel us to consider, in addition to the surrounding and specific contexts, the paradigms of the educational models and concepts that impacted the university and its evaluation.
Institutional evaluation in Brazil is responsible for instrumentalizing educational policies, since it is never without the strategic links of the education system, with its functional dynamics, with the central objectives of the political program for the country’s educational area. In this sense, as evidenced by Penteado (1998), the plurality of forms and functions and an overlap of models and conceptions of the university move pieces of a game of contradictions, making it necessary to pay attention to the different conceptions of the ends and means of education underlying the discourse and practice of assessment.
Regarding the folding of the university’s origins, Kerr (1982) emphasizes that it can be considered a distinctly medieval institution. For the author, despite its origins in the Middle Ages, it has maintained several characteristics that prevail in our time, such as: a name, centralized location, teachers with a certain degree of autonomy, students, a conference system, an examination procedure and grant diplomas and administrative structures.
According to Kerr (1982), it was in Germany that the university was reborn. Relevant events that took place at the end of the 18th century were able to mark the course and reflect significantly on the history of higher education; as exemplified by the author: the non-prevalence of the Latin language for teaching (1693), the introduction to the teaching of history (1736) and, especially, the foundation (1809) of the University of Berlin, which introduced the principle of research as an exercise of human reason and experimentation aimed at the society whose fortune became to interest him.
According to Kerr (1982 p. 25),
[…] the most dramatic event was the founding, in 1809, of the University of Berlin by Wilhelm Von Humboldt, who made his influence known in the Prussian ministry. The emphasis was on philosophy and science, on research, on graduate education, on the freedom of teachers and students. “The professor was recognized as the great figure inside and outside the university”.
In line with the aforementioned author, Castanho (2000) states that such events culminated in practical constructions and theoretical formulations in the 19th and 20th centuries, not only in Germany, resulting in what several authors called university models that bring in their conceptions of education higher. These models are intrinsically related to the evaluation of higher education institutions. Thus, the main characteristics and conceptions of the models will be described: German, English, French, American and socialist.
Castanho (2000) clarifies that in spite of the models undergoing an internal process of transformations over time, such evolution does not alter their construct and, thus, I print what the author considers as the crystallization of the spirit.
1 .3. Higher Education Assessment Scenario in Brazil
Probably since the emergence of man there is an evaluation, because we use it to make choices, to make decisions, to assign value to something and even to assess the value of the intangible. The evaluation can be used for different purposes, areas and entities.
To show how long the evaluation has been used by the man Dias Sobrinho (2002, p. 124) reports that “long before the Christian era, the evaluation served the purposes of selecting individuals from certain corporations to occupy places and exercise functions the public service system ”.
Initially, when it emerged, evaluation was used to make choices. Even in our day-to-day lives, we use evaluation to classify, choose and make decisions, such as when researching prices or products when we go to the supermarket, or choose what clothes to wear to go to work or an interview.
The use of assessment by education systems is recent. According to Dias Sobrinho (2002, p. 124),
Written tests and exams for the purpose of ascertaining knowledge are not very old. The first evaluative practices promoted by medieval universities were done only as oral exercises, not written. The Jesuit pedagogy later developed this type of oral competition, emulative and qualitative, as a privileged psychological technique. The exam system and its representation through grades, the notation, is a practice that arises with the institutionalization of modern schools.
After the industrial revolution, assessment began to be used by educational systems to assess students. In the beginning, the process was basically that of “correcting students’ duties and assigning grades” (DIAS SOBRINHO, 2002, p. 125). Thus came the assessment that measures the student’s knowledge and assigns him a grade or concept.
Regarding the evolution and the new role of evaluation, Dias Sobrinho (2002, p. 126) points out that:
In the last hundred years, evaluation has become institutionalized as a complex area of practices, instruments, theories and professionals, fulfilling educational, but also social and political, far-reaching functions. It is precisely in this relationship between the different levels of institutionalized education from the 18th century onwards and the increasingly complex social and economic life that assessment will play a very important and important role.
Evaluation is a much discussed topic and it has been constantly evolving over the years, as it has many functions and meets the needs of different audiences.
The evaluation can be conceptualized in a simple way, as the analysis of a certain thing (information, individuals, actions, among others) to reach a specific objective, which will supply a need of the evaluator. The evaluation leads the evaluator to have a diagnosis, that is, it shows the situation of something.
Hadji (2001, p. 11) teaches that “evaluation is always something different from a pure and simple scientific measure; the act of evaluating is an act of confrontation, of correlation which, in large part, implies ‘arrangements’ and is the fruit of ‘negotiations’ ”.
Hadji’s thinking exposes the deepest sense of evaluation, that is, evaluation is not just a simple measurement, it goes further when it assumes the role of producing and providing information that leads those involved to be able to make decisions.
Ristoff (1999, p. 44) believes that “the evaluation process needs, and this is obvious, to always pursue accuracy. You need to be absolutely clear in the questions you ask and free from ambiguity in the results you present ”. In case the evaluation is not clear, distortions in the results that may be presented may appear, rendering it useless for reaching the established objective.
In education, in particular, assessment was and is widely used to verify student performance, making it possible, through the result, to formulate action strategies, activities, exercises, methodologies, etc., to achieve what was proposed in the teaching plan .
Hadji (2001, p. 15) points out that “assessment, in a teaching context, has the legitimate objective of contributing to the success of teaching, that is, for the construction of this knowledge and skills by the student”.
Through the evaluations, the teacher can measure the degree of knowledge of the student, his evolution or not within the course or discipline, the subjects he masters most and those he doesn’t master so much, among other points.
Also through assessment, the teacher can self-assess . Observing and analyzing, the class performance in the evaluations it can verify if the content was assimilated properly and, if it was not, reflect on what to do so that the students have a better performance.
Dias Sobrinho (2003, p. 15) states that “it is in education that evaluation found its privileged place, not only as a political and pedagogical practice, producing effects within and outside the educational scope, but also as an important field of study”.
It can be seen that evaluation, as a field of study, is increasingly becoming an important subject and much discussed by numerous areas of knowledge.
Igarashi (2007, p. 2), through a research carried out with the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), from the article category, through the subject index in which he searched the term “evaluation”, found 973 published scientific articles until April 2, 2007, showing the relevance of the theme.
In addition to being a theme for study and research, the evaluation also brought new fields of work, because to prepare laws, guidelines, systems, there was a need for qualified people.
Evaluation, for Tyler (1978, p. 98), becomes “a process whose purpose is to verify the extent to which learning experiences, as developed and organized, are actually producing the desired results, and the evaluation process will understand the identification of the weaknesses and strengths of the plans ”.
As can be seen from what has been exposed so far, there are many concepts for the word evaluation and it is used in several ways, to achieve numerous objectives.
Within the educational field, the evaluation has a particular meaning, as it will have the purpose of evaluating educational institutions, their courses and students. In this work, the question of the evaluation of higher education will be studied. But before that, it is necessary to present the difference between assessment of learning and institutional assessment.
Learning assessment is one that has learning as its object of study. Institutional evaluation, on the other hand, is one whose object of study is the organization or institution and everything that is part of it.
Romão ( apud BERBEL et al , 2001, p. 19) brings the following concept of learning evaluation:
The assessment of learning is a type of investigation and is also a process of raising awareness about the “primary culture” of the student with their potential, their limits, their traits, and their specific rhythms.
At the same time, it provides the educator with a review of their procedures and even the questioning of their own way of analyzing science and facing the world. In this case, there is a process of mutual education.
It can be said then that the assessment of learning seeks to reveal the performance of students, teachers and the teaching plan outlined for the discipline or course.
Cimadon (1998, p. 165) complements the concept of assessment of learning provided by Romão when he teaches that:
In our understanding, the assessment of learning is a methodological process that consists of verifying whether the student has the necessary skills for their professional training. Criteria are used to identify progress and problems in order to make decisions. It allows a classification through own instruments, weightings and selection of techniques.
Learning assessment is seen by most students as a bad thing. In general, students do not like to carry out assessments. However, this is the oldest and most used way of verifying if the students really understood what was seen and, for the teacher, it allows to verify, through the results, if the objectives were reached.
Cimadon (1998, p. 165) explains that evaluation is a scientific and systemic process, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: The scientific and systemic evaluation process
Source: Cimadon (1998, p. 165)
Because evaluation is a scientific and systemic process, it is therefore a continuous, cumulative, descriptive and comprehensive process. Cimadon (1998, p. 165) explains each characteristic of the evaluation, as follows:
Assessment is a continuous process, because it aims at a permanent, organized behavior that is evidenced by the student. It is cumulative, because it accompanies the student in the different stages through a different, global view and with specific observations. […]. Assessment is a descriptive process because the student’s performance is measured and symbolized in grades and concepts. […]. It is a comprehensive process, because it aims at systematic monitoring of the learning evidenced by the student in terms of skill, knowledge, thinking, attitude, evaluation, synthesis, problem solving, etc.
Learning assessment is a complex process, because in addition to having to observe all the bases for its preparation, it will aim to provide information that should assist the teaching and learning process, while taking into account the fact that it is being used to the process of forming individuals.
The purpose that led to the improvement of the evaluations, for Tyler (1978, p. 98), was to verify if “the learning experience plans really work as guides for the teacher in obtaining the desired results”.
Thus, the evaluation process can also function as a supervisory agent for students and teachers, as it is known that many teachers do not comply with what is proposed in the plan, leaving students unprepared as to the content that should be addressed.
Within his conception of learning evaluation, Cimadon (1998, p. 167) presents a table (Chart 1), where the main functions of evaluation are placed.
Table 1: Evaluation Functions
Source: Cimadon (1998, p. 167)
Table 1 shows that the evaluation has, besides the function of being a selective and classificatory process, the function of providing elements for the pedagogical planning, elaboration or improvement of the curriculum and creation of strategies.
The evaluation is used to verify the extent to which the teaching and learning process reaches the proposed objectives, that is, through the evaluation process, given a certain plan or curriculum, it is possible to observe which points were reached and which were not.
Cimadon (1998, p. 171) says that evaluations must follow a path, which he calls “evaluation stages”: “a) Determine what will be evaluated; b) Establish the evaluation criteria and conditions; c) Select the procedures and instruments; d) Quantify the activities in units of degree ”.
These steps are necessary so that the appraiser can prepare an assessment that verifies that his objectives, those outlined in the teaching plan, have been achieved.
There are many topics that can be studied about evaluation, such as: history, functions, objectives, purposes, types and levels, regulation, modalities, among others. With regard to the modalities of evaluation, Cimadon (1998, p. 168) explains that they can be understood as if they were the form of “organization of the evaluation”. Thus, regarding the modality, the evaluations are classified as follows: “diagnostic, summative and formative”, according to their purposes.
Summative assessment is also known as classificatory or traditional. It seeks to translate in a quantitative way the student’s performance at a specific moment that may be at the end of the course, semester, quarter etc. The best known instrument of this modality is the test, the results of which are expressed in notes or concepts (CIMADON, 1998).
Formative assessment aims to verify and point out the lack of initial knowledge and skills necessary to learn other knowledge and skills. One can mention as an example the placement tests that aim to direct the student to the class appropriate to their abilities (CIMADON 1998).
The diagnostic assessment is a more comprehensive assessment, which seeks to know the student’s skills and condition in general, classifying the student at a certain stage of the learning process. According to Cimadon (1998, p. 168), the diagnostic evaluation is “of great value when applied at the beginning of the course or unit, it is distinguished from other modalities because it is based on Scientific Methodology”.
Another type of evaluation that was not observed by Cimadon , but that is practiced is emancipatory , which uses the student’s self-evaluation so that the teacher can issue a report on the student’s evolutionary process.
Both in the case of evaluating educational or social programs and in the case of evaluating students, emancipatory evaluation requires the use of self-criticism , being held hostage by the honesty of those who are answering questions. And this is an aspect that must be taken into account, because if the assessment has not been answered in a true way, the survey and data analysis will do nothing to improve the conditions of the student and the institution.
On the other hand, assuming the hypothesis that the evaluation is answered honestly, this type of evaluation will be useful because the individual himself will point out his strengths and weaknesses and will not be subject to the effect of other factors as in the case of other evaluations, when sick or with family problems, etc., or even when their performance is better in multiple choice tests instead of discursive questions and so on.
Integrating assessment into the teaching and learning process is necessary to guide the process. Assessment is a constitutive part of the teaching-learning process, that is, it is integrated into the process as a permanent part of activities aimed at the development of the individual and the institutions.
In the case of higher education it is no different, that is, in higher education the evaluation has evolved and comes to meet the needs of “measurement” of learning.
According to Dias Sobrinho (2003, p. 14),
Higher education, as well as that of any other level, is closely linked to the major movements of society. There is no educational transformation that does not simultaneously imply some social change, as they are dimensions of the same phenomenon. There is also no major transformation in education that does not rely on evaluation.
As social changes emerge, evaluation systems also seek to classify, regulate and coordinate such changes, with the aim of ensuring quality and reliability, among other aspects.
Regarding institutional evaluation, it can be seen that it has as an object of study an institution, entity or organization. In the case of higher education institutions (HEIs), institutional evaluation can be carried out in two ways: internal evaluation and external evaluation. Both have the objective of evaluating the pedagogical and scientific work, in its technical and formative sense, as well as the activities most directly linked to the institution’s social commitments, social relations and working conditions, as well as administrative efficiency and the effectiveness of interpersonal processes that develop in different instances.
It is also important to analyze the conditions of sustainability and continuity, the infrastructure, the information flows and the functioning of the collegiate structures of the institution (SINAES 2004, p. 96).
The internal assessment or self-assessment is carried out by the university’s own members. External evaluation or hetero-evaluation is carried out by the government. The institutional assessment will point out the efficiencies and deficiencies of the Higher Education Institution.
Internal and external evaluations must be prepared so that the information obtained by both of them is complete, seeking to evaluate the Higher Education Institution in its entirety.
Until the end of the 1950s, the predominant characteristic of the evaluation was determined by the official need to authoritatively control the institution of higher education, although, between the 1940s and 1960s, the emergence of the contesting movement that according to Buarque (1994) was registered motivated by the educators and students who idealized a new university for the country, in which the university environment was configured as a propitious place for discussion, democracy and freedom.
In this direction, Fávero (1977) highlights the relevant movements in the performance of students who contributed to the understanding of the process that led to university reform. The main facts were: the 1st National Seminar on University Reform, held in Salvador in 1961, which resulted in the so-called Bahia Declaration; the 1st Southern Region Meeting in Porto Alegre , also in 1961; the 2nd National Seminar on University Reform in Curitiba in 1962; the 3rd National Seminar on University Reform, held in Belo Horizonte in 1963.
The document called the Declaration of Bahia presented the basis for a university reform program listing three themes: Brazilian Reality, University in Brazil and University Reform. In addition to the seminars, other movements succeeded, mobilizing public opinion around the university’s problems. In response to criticisms raised by students and intellectuals, the Federal Government took partial measures until 1968.
It is important to highlight that in 1964, the institutional political order adjusted to the current economic development model, reflecting, above all, in the university institution. Until that period, higher education was the place of reproduction of class structure, power relations and the dominant ideology, which was distinguished from the others for being a cultural asset of the elite. The official and partial measures that preceded the reform of higher education in 1968, redefined the purposes for higher education that came to be seen as training of labor for the market, and the university came to be seen as an investment that should generate profit Social.
In this context, Fávero (1977) points out that the reform of higher education in 1968 was marked by the evaluation generated by the imposition of the authoritarian regime that, interested in the modernization and development of the nation, signed an agreement with North American specialists for the mission of modifying the Brazilian university system and fit it in the perspective of United States interests. This assessment of the situation of higher education resulted in the Atcon Reports and the Meira Mattos Commission.
The Atcon Report , produced by the American consultant Rudolf Atcon in 1965, aimed to guide a new model of university administration based on business administration and focusing on productivity, projecting autonomy and independence for this system through a private foundation. These dimensions characterized evaluative proposals and debates on higher education that led to the configuration of a typically technocratic educational pattern. Rudolf Atcon , in addition to basing himself on American university models, used information in a visit to twelve Brazilian university institutions, to identify what might be useful for the proposal to accelerate the process of transforming higher education in the country.
According to Marback Neto (2007), the Atcon Report foresaw the creation of a flexible university structure that would satisfy market needs, organized in the form of departments to be managed as a private company. In its proposal, the Atcon Report incorporated the Taylorist conception of organization and work, and started from the premise that the decision and the command force would be in the hands of the administrators, disconnecting the university from public power. Thus, the government would be released from financing education. This premise did not please the current regime, which, with decentralization, would lose the political or legal-administrative control of the university.
In the Atcon Report , the necessary adjustments were highlighted, highlighted as:
[…] the need for maximum performance with the least investment of money; need for correspondence between the teaching received, acquired knowledge and the exercise of a profession; implementation of an educational system based on real values, and not merely utilitarian ones; affirmation that it corresponds not only to the needs of the present, but also to the needs of the non-immediate future (FÁVERO, 1991 p. 23).
The adjustments highlighted by the Atcon Report had their effects and pedagogical and political consequences reflected in the university over decades.
The period from 1964 to 1968 was marked by the intensification of the student protest movement that preceded the 1964 military coup, characterized by protests, marches, strikes, among others. This context meant that, in 1967, the President of the Republic, through Decree nº 62.024, instituted a Special Commission with the purpose of establishing a new administrative and disciplinary order related to student and university problems. It was then the responsibility of this Commission to: issue opinions on the claims, theses and suggestions regarding student activities; plan proposed measures for better application of government guidelines in the student sector; supervise, coordinate and execute guidelines through delegation from the Minister of State (FÁVERO, 1977).
This Commission was chaired by Colonel Meira Mattos and resulted in the document called Meira Mattos Report. In the concluding document, as Martins (1989) observes, it states:
[…] education was an instrument for accelerating development, an instrument for social progress, and, in this sense, it must adapt courses and curricula to the impositions of national development [..] in addition to being connected to the needs of the system economic, education should also form a democratic mentality, instilling in the students faith in the spiritual and moral values of nationality. It is a question of expanding higher education in accordance with the principle of rationalization of academic activities, in order to achieve, through it, the maximum yield with less investment (MARTINS, 1989, p. 28-29).
The actions contained in this proposal were structured based on autocratic evaluative content, with the aim of transforming higher education.
The Meira Mattos Report showed that the legislation should be formulated through legal provisions that repress the students’ protest movements to the current political situation. In this sense, there would be a strict control of university activities, in which the student would be evaluated according to educational and citizenship criteria, and the government should exercise the supervisory role of university performance and compliance with established legal rules.
The main critical points raised by the Commission were: the structural inadequacy of the Ministry of Education, considered stuck and without integration of the different sectors of education and the crisis of authority in the educational system. The report criticized the countless bodies inoperative in the Ministry of Education, resulting in an alleged waste of funds and a source of employment; the freedom of professorship, which, according to the report, violated the legal provisions regarding social order and democratic bases; the need to expand vacancies to face educational problems and encourage student training geared to national development; acceleration of university reform, which was being implemented in a disorderly and slow manner; need to find new funding points for education (FÁVERO, 1977).
The implementation of the guidelines contained in the Meira Mattos Report and the Atcon Report installed, within universities, a highly bureaucratic power relationship, reinvigorating an increasingly administrative-business structure, conceiving education as a productivity factor guided by business logic. The Reports pointed to education as the main factor of economic development and national integration, supposedly benefiting everyone.
It is concluded, however, that despite the convergent aspect of both proposals and the fact that they were elaborated in a context of political repression, the Atcon Report proposed to design a model for Brazilian universities, while the Meira Mattos report had with the objective of implementing a new administrative and disciplinary order to Brazilian universities in response to the student movement in the years that preceded the military coup of 1964.
According to Braga (1989), Brazilian higher education, until the 1960s, constituted itself as the first moment of university life in the country and reproduced the elitism of the European university , with few students, all young and of male origin. aristocratic or bourgeois, whose role was to serve to compose the picture of a political elite at the service of a ruling class.
After the university reform of 1968, the 1970s was the scene of protest movements and constant governmental interventions in the destinations of education, mainly the higher education. The economic crisis installed in this period significantly impacted the direction of higher education and its evaluation, reaffirming the facts that the question of evaluation refers to areas that are not strictly educational and that it has both history and inserts itself in the country’s historicity. Thus, among the main crises experienced by the Brazilian economic system in its historical process, it is relevant to highlight the depression that occurred in 1929, caused by the concentration of capital in countries such as England and the United States, which reflected in the ensuing decades. The depression hit capitalist states and lasted in some countries from 1930 to 1970. Thus, the following decade was conducive to economic restructuring and social and political readjustment through the production model called flexible accumulation. In this context of the economic crisis of the capitalist system, the neoliberal state emerged, which entered the process of reformulation and strongly launched evaluative policies in the field of higher education.
In this dimension, management and evaluation policies are geared towards meeting the logic of commodification , based on the tripod of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. As Dias Sobrinho (2003) points out, the purpose of control and regulation is that evaluation goes beyond educational limits and enters the political and economic planes, placing itself at the service of the State, which is embodied in an Evaluating State.
Morosini (2006) emphasizes that, also called the regulating state and the supervising state, this represents a hybrid model between the market and the state, combining an autonomy strategy with institutional self-regulation .
Afonso (2000) points out that in this context, the State establishes the objectives of the system and defines the quality criteria for the results, and the institutions decide how to respond to expectations. It is the minimum state facing the responsibilities and promotion of social and educational policies, and the maximum state facing the control policies, among which the evaluation policies stand out.
In other words, the evaluation policies resulted from some aspects: the need to program mechanisms to control results and to measure the performance of educational systems; the need to have a concrete, practical and reliable evaluation system for the results of administrative action through the logic of business management and the need for regulation based on minimum criteria of quality and efficiency according to market requirements, as explained by Afonso (2000) .
In the context of higher education, important themes and manifestations from the academic community and civil society established the struggle for autonomy and democracy. At the threshold of the 1980s and early 1990s, the divergent forces that were on the scene pointed to the need for interference in the evaluation processes in an effort to break the evaluation paradigm that was centered on objectivity, authoritarianism and the quantification of results.
According to Lima (2005), in addition to the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel – CAPES – which in 1977 began the evaluation with an exclusive focus on graduate programs, the first comprehensive evaluation experience in Brazilian higher education emerged in 1983 with the University Reform Assessment Program (PARU), which focused its intentions on the management, production and dissemination of knowledge by higher education institutions. The same author states that, with the advent of the New Republic in 1985, President José Sarney constituted the commission of notables that produced the report – A new policy for higher education – which served as the basis for further reformulations of the following governments.
Under the Fernando Henrique Cardoso government, the neoliberal educational idea directed the expansion of policies favoring privatization, diversification and institutional differentiation, autonomy as a counterpart to the evaluation of results and the valorization of the ideology of excellence, efficiency, productivity and effective management. Still in a historical panorama, Lima (2005) shows that from 1990 until the enactment of the current Law of Guidelines and Bases nº 9.394 / 96, Brazilian higher education institutions were authorized to function for life, that is, the institutions could function indefinitely after its accreditation and with permanent observance of the law. The assessment did not interfere with the institution’s functioning. Thus, isolated and private colleges, which had the largest institutional dimension of Brazilian post-secondary education, were not evaluated. The Law of Guidelines and Bases introduced the principle of temporary accreditation, in force for the institutions created or in evolutionary processes, transforming them into university centers or universities.
During the 90s, higher education had as a central reference for evaluative policies the Institutional Evaluation Program of Brazilian Universities, called PAIUB. The Program had financial subsidies for its development and aimed to guide the standardization of projects to be implemented by universities. For Palharini (2001), the Program sought to overcome the models that were guided by technical and standardized guidelines that expressed concern with the practical functions of the university. The central axis of the proposal established that the evaluation was a decentralized, participatory, open, creative process, aimed at critical reflection and the redefinition of major academic and institutional objectives, including quantitative and qualitative information.
Palharini (2001) draws attention to the political context in which the PAIUB proposal was developed. According to the author, the program was based on the World Bank report presented to the Brazilian government in 1991. Among the main recommendations of this report, the proposal that the Federal Education Council should become an effective control agency stood out. the growth of higher education, taking on new tasks, including the allocation of resources and the development of standards to increase the effectiveness and responsibility of these institutions.
Lima (2005) states that the report had guidelines for the restructuring of higher education in Brazil based on the models of the medieval University of Paris and the Napoleonic-Cartesian University, in the experience of revising the French model generated in the modern era.
PAIUB emerged from a proposal to build an emancipated evaluation project based on participation, negotiation, voluntariness and criticism of regulation control. Despite this, it faced problems resulting in a tremor between the Ministry of Education and the academic community. The most significant problems were: the absence of an evaluative culture in the face of the challenge of developing the program and the rancidity of the tradition of control and regulation within the scope of the evaluation. Due to the problems in the implementation of PAIUB, in 1996, the National Examination of Courses (ENC) was created, with completely different objectives from PAIUB.
During the administration of Paulo Renato as Minister of Education, through the consolidation of the National Examination of Courses – ENC, a wide process of evaluation of courses was developed with implication in the supervision of higher education. ENC represented a state regulation mechanism, whose criteria were related to the market, with the establishment of a ranking that stimulated competition between institutions. The hypothesis is that the ENC was an action to promote the functioning of a higher education system in the transition from a system considered closed and elitist.
In this sense, ENC represented an important step in official policy for the institutionalization of mass assessment. Also during this period, the Ministry of Education defined categories necessary for the periodic re-accreditation of higher education institutions and instituted the creation of the Institutional Development Plan, which became a link of commitment between the institutions and the Ministry of Education. This document, prepared by each institution of higher education, should reflect the global vocation, the mission, values, defined objectives, pedagogical guidelines, as well as the steps to achieve the educational objectives.
Ximenes (2003) affirms that the institutional evaluation theme returned again, with prominence in the MEC, from 2002, through the evaluation of the re-accreditation of the higher education institutions, foreseen in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of 1996, which affirmed the principle of renewal evaluation of courses and institutions. In 2003, under the Luis Inácio Lula da Silva government, a new evaluation model emerged as an improvement on the previous system. Under the management of the Minister of Education, Cristovam Buarque, a Special Commission for the Evaluation of Higher Education (CEA) was appointed to elaborate proposals to change the evaluation of higher education, as well as review the issues for the ENC. The Commission was composed of representatives from the Higher Education Secretariat (SESU), the National Institute of Educational Studies and Research (INEP), the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), the National Student Union (UNE) and specialists linked to public and private universities. The Commission held public hearings with around fifty entities representing different segments of civil society.
The result of the work served as the basis for the National Higher Education Assessment System (SINAES). The conception of evaluation present in the presented document focused on the formative character and individual and institutional improvement. The evaluation process would consist of institutional self-evaluation complemented by external evaluation through on-site visits (considered then as the central point) related to the Integrated Evaluation Process of Educational Development and Innovation in the Area (PAIDEA) in which it would be applied in samples of students in the second and last year of courses in order to analyze the educational processes in each area of knowledge.
The disclosed proposal generated contrary opinions regarding the evaluation mechanisms and in favor of maintaining the ENC, considered as effective and objective in relation to the new proposal, which was considered to be subjective. The evolution of the national debate, according to Lima (2005), in addition to the technical and scientific aspects of evaluation, also absorbed political aspects related to its advances and divergences in relation to the previous evaluation system.
The legacy of the Anglo-American model, with a predominance of quantitative over qualitative aspects, led to some reformulations in the initial proposal, generating another proposal (SINAPES) instituted by Provisional Measure 147 of December 2003. According to Lima (2005), the a new proposal was presented to the Senate Education Commission by the Minister of Education, Cristovam Buarque, creating the Higher Education Development Index (IDES), composed of the following pillars: the teaching process; faculty assessment; the learning process considering the data from the National Student Performance Assessment Exam (ENADE); institutional capacity considering the specific data of the evaluation of teaching conditions; the responsibility of the course, for measuring the contribution of courses to society in general.
In 2004, with the ministerial reform promoted by President Lula, the Ministry of Education took over Tarso Genro, which changed the content of Provisional Measure 147/2003. In its management, in April 2004, Law 10.861 / 2004 was approved, which instituted SINAES and the National Commission for the Evaluation of Higher Education (CONAES), with responsibility for the coordination and supervision of SINAES. This same Law also defined the creation of the Own Evaluation Committee (CPA) to coordinate the institutional evaluation processes within the institutions. The CPA should be composed of representatives from the different university segments and enjoy political autonomy. The Commission would have its actions guided by the documents Guidelines for the Evaluation of Higher Education Institutions and the Roadmap for Self-evaluation .
The document called Guidelines for the Evaluation of Higher Education Institutions divided the evaluation process into three stages: a) the public authority, responsible for regulating higher education, would be responsible for the authorization processes and the accreditation of courses; b) the evaluation carried out by higher education institutions would be subdivided into phases: a preliminary institutional self-evaluation , coordinated by the Evaluation Committee, the preparation of a report by the Evaluation Committee for external evaluation in order to guide the internal process, and the forwarding of the report by CONAES for the final opinion; c) the government, through the opinion of CONAES, would apply the regulatory effects.
The Institutional Self-Assessment Roadmap suggested the subjects that were organized into ten dimensions corresponding to those established in Law 10.861 / 2004, as defined:
1) the mission and the Institutional Development Plan;
2) the policy for teaching, research, graduate studies, extension and the respective operational rules, including the procedures for stimulating academic production, research, monitoring and other scholarships;
3) the social responsibility of the institution, especially considering its contribution in relation to social inclusion, economic and social development, the defense of the environment, cultural memory, artistic production and cultural heritage;
4) communication with society;
5) personnel policies, the careers of the teaching and technical-administrative staff, their improvement, professional development and their working conditions;
6) the organization and management of the institution, especially the functioning and representation of the collegiate bodies, their independence and autonomy in relation to the sponsor and the participation of segments of the academic community in decision-making processes;
7) the physical infrastructure, especially that of teaching and research, library, information and communication resources;
8) planning and evaluation, especially in relation to the processes, results and effectiveness of institutional self-evaluation ;
9) policies for attending students and graduates;
10) financial sustainability, in view of the social significance of the continuity of commitments in the provision of higher education.
CHAPTER II. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF NURSING HIGHER EDUCATION
According to Romão, Walcker and Merino (1997), nursing is one of the youngest professions, and its exercise began in antiquity, with family life and evolved as an extension of care among family members. Donahue (1993), states that the English word nursery comes from the Latin vocabulary nutrire , which means to nurture, in English, nurse also has roots in Latin, in the word nutrix , which means ‘woman who cares’.
The meaning of nursery, woman who cares, was used initially in the 13th century and its spelling was adapted from norrice , nurrice later nourice and finally nurse. This word was also used as a verb, whose original roots come from the Latin vocabulary nutrire , which means to breastfeed and nourish. The word nurse had other dimensions in its meaning, as stated by Donahue (1993, p. 4) “woman who takes care and cares for young children”.
In antiquity, nursing was a disorganized occupation, manifested by charitable actions in temples built in the service of the gods of healing. It was exercised by religious or lay people of inferior social position, who took care of the sick and helped them to die. The training of nurses was carried out through the practice of caring and psychological and spiritual assistance to patients (GEOVANINI et al., 2002).
Lunardi (1997) states that nursing practice was characterized as a work of God. The use of a veil by nurses represented obedience, humility and service, and the current cap of nurses is a variant of the veil, and also has its meaning linked to humility and the provision of a service to humanity. Thus, the practice of nursing was seen as charitable and religious assistance, and followed the precepts of the Church, Geovanini et al (2002, p. 176) adds saying
While hospitals in Europe were run by religious orders, in addition to being characterized by dying pools and heaps of poor patients, the care given to the sick had an air of service of charity. They passed as a gift given to the sick, in the name of God’s grace and the spirit of sacrifice of those who executed them. There was no link that characterized the activity as professional; nurses were people who, coming from poor sections of the population, worked in exchange for protection, accommodation and food.
Only in 1853, Dr. Robert Cook suggested a program of preparation for nurses, which introduced several basic points of the current schools, proven teaching through exams and guided practical internships, however, there was no one to carry them out.
As a profession, nursing in Europe emerged with Florence Nightingale in 1859. Florence was of aristocratic origin and had social prestige, was interested in politics, in people and especially in philanthropic institutions (ZAGONEL, 1996). After working in the Crimean War (1853-1856), he implemented strict sanitary standards and was the forerunner of a revolution in nursing care and care established at the time. Rodrigues (2001) explains that Florence also introduced concepts of the environment, human beings, health and nursing, and emphasized that care should be given to sick and healthy people, emphasizing care, education and research, treating the sick and not the disease.
In 1859, Florence founded a nursing school at Saint Thomas hospital, which ended up becoming a model for the other schools that emerged afterwards, with strict rules and discipline, taking into account the moral qualities of the candidates. According to Geovanini et al (2002, p. 18), the rules of the School were
(…) of the military type, it was one of the characteristics of the nightingalean school , as well as the requirement of moral qualities of the candidates. The one-year course consisted of daily classes taught by doctors and the moral and intellectual standard of the women who left with Florence for this type of activity was subjected to careful examination. They should have absolute selflessness, altruism, a spirit of sacrifice, integrity, humility and, above all, discipline.
This strict stance demanded by Florence made nursing a scientifically structured profession and not only linked to acts of charity or philanthropy, giving this profession the condition of not being more characterized as an empirical activity, alienated from specialized knowledge, and rather as a salaried occupation that comes to meet the needs of labor in hospitals, establishing itself as an institutionalized and specific social practice (SCLIAR, 1996).
Geovanini et al. (2002) states that in the first nursing schools, classes were taught by doctors, and they had the power to decide the functions that nurses could perform. Donahue (1993) explains that the school had the purpose of training two different types of nurses: one for the care of poor patients and another for teaching.
Schools that emerged later should follow the philosophical precepts of the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing , which were based on four principles: (1) training should be designed as important as any other form of teaching and financed by public money; (2) schools should maintain close links with hospitals, while safeguarding financial and administrative independence; (3) demarcated nursing education as an activity performed by professional nurses, excluding other categories of this activity; and, (4) the students should have, during the training period, residence at their disposal, guaranteeing them a comfortable environment, close to the hospital (ATKINSON; MURRAY, 1989).
Within this context, through the idealizations of Florence Nightingale the nursing profession gained technical and scientific autonomy.
2.1 . Nursing in Brazil
In Brazil, until the beginning of the 20th century, nursing was the activity of religious women in the hospitals of Santa Casa de Misericórdia. The nursing action had a charitable connotation, the activities of the religious were aimed at cleaning the hospital environment, the organization and discipline of workers in the area and the physical and spiritual care of the sick (PIRES, 1989).
The first initiative to create a School of Nursing in Brazil was in 1890, when the State came to take control of psychiatric care in Rio de Janeiro, which installed the Alfredo Pinto School of Nursing in Hospício Pedro II itself, also called National Hospital for Alienated. Germano (1993) states that the curriculum was based at the School of Salpetière , in France focused only on curative aspects, without any concern for public health. According to Costa apud Moreira et al (2005, p. 44), the French model was chosen because “since the most remote times, it has been the model of hospital organizations for all of Europe and the rest of the world, especially in the case of psychiatry” .
The institution of this School according to Pires (1989) was caused by the abrupt departure of the sisters of charity from the Hospício Geral de Alienados,
and the need for personnel initiated in the field of care and administration but, now, no longer independent and with the power to determine the type of assistance and the direction of the institution (as hitherto occurring), but a role with some qualification professional but controlled and trained to exercise part of the health act under medical control (PIRES, 1989, p. 124).
In 1922, the School of Nurses of the National Department of Public Health – DNSP was created, determined by decree nº 15799 of 10/12/22, advocating the Nigigalean system along the lines of American schools, introducing a new era for nursing in the country. In 1926 the school was renamed Nursing School Ana Nery, in honor of the first volunteer war nurse in Brazil (FIGUEIREDO, 2002). This school was considered, for ten years as the official standard school by Decree nº 20.109 / 31.
The school emerged at a time when the government was establishing health policies to control endemics and epidemics, since they threatened the development of international trade. However, there was not enough health equipment or skilled labor to implement these policies. As a result of this fact, Carlos Chagas, a sanitary doctor when he learned about the work performed by American nurses was similar to what Brazil needed, requested assistance from the International Health Board to institute a similar service in Brazil (SILVA, 1989). A group of North American nurses was then sent by the Rockfeller Foundation, led by Ethel Parsons and Clara Louise Kienninger , with the purpose of renewing teaching and implementing the Nightingale system (SILVA, 1989).
School applicants must have a normal high school or high school diploma. The program was based on the health model of the time, which emphasized the preparation of students to participate in programs to combat epidemics, to take care of the isolation of patients and to follow up on contacts (COFEN, 1985). As a result of the great demand, there was a need for auxiliary staff, and the nurses at Escola Ana Néri were given the task of preparing them, thus giving rise to the nursing assistant.
According to Rodrigues (2001), the Anna Nery School operationalized the model of professional nursing in Brazil, requiring candidates with a better level of education. His ideology expressed obedience, dedication and selflessness, establishing definite traits in the profession.
In 1926 the National Association of Registered Brazilian Nurses was founded, the current Brazilian Nursing Association ( ABen ). The Association and its norms were elaborated, constituted and structured by the first nurses trained by the Anna Nery School (GEOVANINI et al , 2002).
In 1946, with the decree nº 21.321 , the Statute of the University of Brazil was approved and the Anna Nery School was integrated as a Higher Education establishment, currently called the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
In the 1940s, with the increase in the number of hospitals, there was a need to establish more schools to train human resources. In 1946, the Union began to order the Guidelines and Bases of National Education and the Statute of the University of Brazil was approved. As a result, nursing schools became part of universities. In 1961, the requisition for the complete secondary cycle for admission to any higher education institution was determined (GERMANO, 1993).
Mendes (1996) explains that the minimum curriculum, elaborated in 1962, according to the norms of the Law of Guidelines and Bases for Education (LDB), focused only on curative aspects, focused on individual care, with the purpose of training professionals to act in specialized services, with mastery of techniques. This curricular model, supported by the technicist paradigm, proposed to establish a standard professional model. In 1972, the minimum curriculum was structured on two pillars: the pre-professional and the professional, including qualification. Thus, the nurse’s work focused on curative practices, based on the biological framework and the Cartesian view, focusing on the health-disease binomial.
In the 70s and 80s, the need to develop new concepts and perceptions in the current health scenario emerged. Nursing teaching was based on the training of nurses for the needs of the labor market with an emphasis on technique, efficiency and effectiveness of procedures (FREITAS, 1993).
In 1994, the Ministry of Education and Sport, through Ordinance 1721, proposed a change in the so-called minimum nursing curriculum, highlighting the training of a “generalist” professional, that is, with a holistic view to act in the areas of assistance, management, teaching and research. What implied a reflection about man in society, the health-disease process, under the focus of a multidisciplinary approach and in the proper knowledge of nursing (FREITAS, 1993).
LDB 9394/96 approved on December 20, 1996, recommended education for the production of science and technology, encouraging the work of research and scientific investigation. From CNE / CES Resolution No. 3, of November 7, 2001, the National Curricular Guidelines for the Undergraduate Nursing Course were established, there was a concern to adapt the professional’s profile, indicated by the National Curricular Guidelines, which are
Nurse with generalist, humanist, critical and reflective training. Qualified professional for the practice of nursing, based on scientific and intellectual rigor and guided by ethical principles. Able to recognize and intervene on health problems / situations – most prevalent diseases in the national epidemiological profile, with an emphasis on their region of operation, identifying the bio-psycho-social dimensions of their determinants. Able to act, with a sense of social responsibility and commitment to citizenship, as a promoter of integral health for human beings (BRASIL, 2001, p. 37)
Chirelli (2002) states that, at present, it is expected that the training of nurses will meet the social needs of health, with an emphasis on SUS and guarantee comprehensive care and the quality and humanization of care. However, Oguisso (2005, p. 09), highlights
Whoever is in the exercise of this profession knows that there is still much to achieve so that nursing becomes, in fact, more valued and recognized and occupies the space it deserves in society. There are still prejudices and often distorted information about what nursing is and what nurses do or should do; about who these professionals are and the importance of the role that they truly play, or should play, in the health team.
Under this bias, it can be seen that nursing is a practice that has existed throughout human history, and was instituted by different forms of care that, in turn, are produced by the social relations of each historical moment (PIRES, 1998 ).
2.2. Nursing Education in Brazil: Historical Context
It was up to the Jesuits, at the beginning of our colonization, to direct and maintain the assistance works, it is to be assumed that they themselves would be in charge of the supervision and even of the general nursing work, being helped by the faithful, to whom they taught what the they were able to learn, which was not always consistent with what was needed to be learned; they also used slave labor.
Anyone could start caring for the sick and, after a little experience, call themselves practical. Others, according to Paixão (1969, p. 98), in places where there were no doctors, were guided by books on popular medicine and home nursing published in Portugal.
As Santi (1984, p. 16) tells us , the very idea of nursing, and the lack of dissemination of scientific knowledge at that time, excessively simplified the requirements for the performance of the functions attributed to nurses.
The School of Medicine of Bahia started, in 1830, the course of midwives. In the year 1852, with the arrival of the religious sisters who took care of the hospital establishments, the attendance improved qualitatively inspired by the development of the teaching of Nursing practice, in Germany and England. In 1874, Dr. Carlos Artur Moncorvo de Figueiredo wrote “Of exercise and medical teaching in Brazil”, recalling measures of great importance, such as: improving teaching, creating new courses and expanding others, establishing clinics and laboratories. In addition, it proposed a two-year course for the training of midwives, created obstetric and health care services. Only 40 years later, legislation was able to cover these needs of this type of professional.
On September 27th, 1890, by Decree no. 791 of the Provisional Government of the Second Republic, the Professional School of Nurses and Nurses was created, whose objective was to prepare personnel for work with the mentally ill, since the sisters of charity responsible for these tasks had abandoned the National Hospice for the Alienated ( where the school started), due to incompatibility with the direction. This school was later named the Alfredo Pinto Nursing School, inspired by the Salpetière School in France.
At the beginning of the last century, the Evangelical Hospital (currently Samaritan Hospital) implemented a nursing course taught by English nurses, which aims to train professionals for that same establishment.
According to Germano (1984, p. 33), the students came from foreign families in the south of the country, classes were taught in English and the hospital was intended for the care of foreigners.
For Santi (1984, p. 18), the requirement of religiosity as a primordial condition for the good performance of the profession is revealed in the historical trajectory of Nursing. In Brazil, even after the systematization of teaching, through schools, some nursing services and even some schools of secondary and higher education received guidance from religious orders.
The feeling of religiosity among the first to practice Nursing marked his spirit – there was an ideological discourse – spread by schools, services … about the qualities inherent to good professionals; First order characteristics were obedience, respect for hierarchy, humility, the spirit of service, selflessness and dedication. (Germano, 1984, p. 24).
If we make a reflection based on this information, we will realize that the social is deprived of a historical sense and isolated from the economic dimension, meaning only to relate well with patients. Economic issues – the mainstay, at the beginning of the 20th century, was the agrarian-exporting coffee sector – the government felt the urge to implement the sanitation of ports and urban centers, in order to meet the external requirements (and warnings) of the countries that with us they traded, given the constant endemics and epidemics that threatened the crew of the ships that docked here, in addition to the Brazilian need to attract foreign labor .
Then, for obvious economic reasons, the National Department of Public Health with its School of Nurses (1923), that decree no. 17,268 of March 31, 1926 called “School of Nurses Dona Ana Néri”; in 1931, when elevated to the category of official standard school, it was designated Ana Néri Nursing School. This is considered by most documents to be the first school in the country, as it was organized and guided exclusively by nurses from the Rockfeller Foundation, and in 1931 a Brazilian nurse took charge of the school and gradually the other American teachers were also replaced by female teachers. Brazilian companies. ( Santi , 1984, p. 20-21).
Germano, analyzing the trajectory of the Ana Néri School curriculum, points out that the structure was maintained in the following years, at least until the 1950s.
There was no rigorous change between the 1923 curriculum and the 1949 curriculum. Both favored the preventive character, although the user market already pointed to a strong trend in the hospital field. Considering now the 1949 Nursing curriculum and the following one, that is, the 1962 curriculum, there is a considerable change. The first appears at a stage in which a supposedly liberal political spirit would prevail, with a capitalism that did not yet support the privatization of Health in a business way, therefore privileging the study of mass diseases through the disciplines of the preventive area.
The 1960s took nursing learning to the era of medication consumption, strengthening the private health sector. The field of work left the sphere of public health and joined medicine more to a more entrepreneurial aspect.
The 1962 curriculum emerges at a time when the Brazilian economy is beginning to tend towards an exclusionary and income-concentrating process and, thus, coincidentally the primary concern of the curriculum now focuses on specialized curative clinics. Public Health, until considered so basic, no longer appears as a mandatory subject of the minimum curriculum, but as specialization, if the student intends to continue his studies after graduating (with the advent of University Reform), then yes, Medicine and Curative nursing is fully strengthened with a capitalism favorable to the excessive consumption of medicines, as well as the surgical medication industry, fundamental to Health Companies. (Germano, 1984, p. 37-38).
Even with the passing of the years, teaching practice in nursing does not achieve great development, at least with regard to stronger regulation and competence delimitations.
In the face of this globalized world, which presents multiple challenges for man, education emerges as a necessary utopia indispensable to humanity in the construction of peace, freedom and social justice.
It must be seen, according to the Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st Century, of UNESCO, “among other ways and beyond them, as a path that leads to a more harmonious, more authentic development, in order to reduce poverty , social exclusion, misunderstandings, oppression and wars ”. PCN-EM.
Regarding the formation of Nursing in Brazil, in the studies of Galleguillos and Oliveira (2001, p.80) in Brazil, nursing education officially started in 1890, with the promulgation of Decree n.791, with the objective of preparing nurses and nurses to work in hospices and civilian and military hospitals, similar to the school in Salpetrière , France.
According to Rizzotto (1995), in all curricular changes in nursing education in Brazil, the predominance of the medical / hospital model in undergraduate education is denounced.
Ito et all (2005, p.571) explains that the legislation on nursing education since the creation of the Anna Nery School, comprising the curricula of 1923, 1949, 1962 and 1972, reveals that the training of nurses was centered on the pole individual / disease / cure and hospital care, following the specific job market for each season.
As a way of adapting urban spaces and facing the demands and as highlighted by Luz (1982), also recognizing the need for a greater number of professionals in the health area, the colony government created, through a Royal Letter in 1808, the School of Surgery of Salvador – in Bahia, and then Rio de Janeiro. Based on French compendia, teaching should consist of theoretical classes and practical demonstrations in the wards of Santas Casas and Hospital Real Militar.
The scenario is covered by epidemics that lead to the death of thousands and according to Germano (1983), the sanitary professional Oswaldo Cruz was invited by the government to undertake a campaign to control yellow fever in Rio de Janeiro, simultaneously combating smallpox and plague.
Also according to Germano (1983), it is in this context that systematized teaching of Nursing emerges, with the purpose of training professionals who contribute to the sanitation of ports, such as the creation of the Anna Nery school, in 1923. It is thus printed in the official discourse , the historical characterization of the beginnings of nursing education in Brazil, in the area of public health, in order to guarantee the sanitation of ports.
In the studies by Resende (1961) , it is highlighted that Nursing education was officially instituted in Brazil with the creation of the Professional School of Nurses, according to Federal Decree No. 791, of September 27, 1890, of the Provisional Government of the Republic of the United States of Brazil.
Mendes (1996) explains that in the 1980s, new health proposals emerged, aiming at a better organization of the system, bringing the assumptions of equity, integrality and universality, as guiding principles of policies in the health sector, requiring professionals with general training, capable of operate at different levels of health care.
Thus, the author claims, there were discussions between class entities, schools, health institutions and others about the need to reformulate the 1972 curriculum, as it would no longer be able to meet the needs imposed by the health sector in Brazil.
In 1994, with the establishment of Ordinance No. 1721/94, a new curricular proposal was instituted in Brazil, whose curriculum foresees the training of nurses in four areas, namely: assistance, management, teaching and research.
Lima (1994, p. 271) defends education as a possibility for transformation, centered on the development of critical awareness, leading nurses to reflect on professional practice and commitment to society.
In order to meet the requirements of the new LDB, the Curricular Guidelines for Undergraduate Health Courses emerged, which aims to take undergraduate health students to learn to learn, which includes learning to be, learning to do, learning to live together and learn to know, guaranteeing the training of professionals with autonomy and discernment to ensure comprehensive care and the quality and humanization of the care provided to individuals, families and communities (CNE, 2001, p.37).
According to Vale and Guedes (1999, p.372), unlike the minimum curriculum, which defines courses and static professional profiles, the curriculum guidelines open the possibility for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to define different profiles of their graduates and adapt , these profiles to the transformations of contemporary sciences and to the social, political and economic needs of society.
In this sense, I agree with the defense of Ito et all (2006) when defending that in view of the above it is clear the commitment and responsibility of higher education with the training of competent professionals, reflective critics and citizens who can act, not only in their training area, but also in the process of transforming society.
According to these authors, throughout the historical course of nursing education in Brazil, social, political, educational and health relationships directly influence the context of modern nursing education, which has undergone several changes with constant and fundamental performance class associations geared towards adapting nurses’ training to the needs of Brazilian society.
In the conception of Rodrigues (2000), on the one hand, we saw the training apparatus pursuing the adjustment to the needs of the market and, on the other hand, the market always unattainable due to the curricular changes proposed for this task. How to understand this mismatch? Is there a dissociation between theory and practice? Is adaptation to the job market possible? Is the adequacy to this job market the nursing life project ?
Still according to Carvalho and Castro (1979, p.55), the permanence of a profession through history is only possible through continuous adaptations to the new expectations and needs of society, arising from scientific development and the consequent technical evolution. These adjustments to social imperatives are characterized at a given moment by a crisis, which is resolved by redefining the professional role.
Therefore, for Felli (2002), the educational model in nursing must seek a reorientation beyond the acquisition of knowledge and the development of technical skills. It is necessary to develop social skills and critical and ethical action, which can boost the break with current management paradigms .
Fernandes (2006, p.19) comments that the current challenge in preparing the curriculum of Nursing Courses, through Pedagogical Projects, is in changing internalized beliefs and paradigms, in which reasoning, perception and sensitivity to life issues and society will strengthen the professional within the Unified Health System.
Nevertheless, Teixeira and Vale (2006, p.129) bring the reflection of teachers to the importance of rescuing responsible, ethical and competent education, in which the roles of educators are in accordance with social, political, ethical and citizen demands .
The degree in nursing is justified as it is necessary for nurses to have pedagogical knowledge that enables them to act as an agent of change in a health team or in formal teaching situations, as they need to be prepared to plan, execute and evaluate teaching situations. -learning (BAGNATO, 1994, p. 138).
Boery ; Dosatti ; Laselva (1994, p. 134), observe that with each passing day, the role of nurse educator in classrooms and / or events, as well as in their professional performance, is evidenced since, educating permeates all their activities.
For the authors, the educational function, however, at the level of pedagogical preparation, is always neglected in relation to the scientific technical preparation of the specific area. As a reflection of this negligence, nurses avoid performing this function and, in the contingency of assuming it, they do it with insecurity
I agree with the words of Urbano (2002, p.144) for whom the required professional profile requires cognitive (know) and operational (know how) skills, supported by ethics and commitment (knowing how to be) and, as such, construction, the management of processes and the formation of subjects is a great challenge.
A challenge that can no longer be excluded from the training of these professionals who, in their daily work, will go through conflicting situations and I believe that a serious reflection is necessary if the future health professional is aware of the social context they will find to work. If what has been given opportunity to myriad health graduates is education or training.
2.2.1. Teaching Skills of Nurse-Teacher
According to Faria (2003, p. 52), it is perceived, nowadays, that the “reflective culture” stands out in the educational scenario, a way of educating people as the world needs, representing a new attitude towards situations education, which depends a lot on the development of teachers ‘ self-analysis and reflection capacity , in the search for a teaching practice that considers both aspects of teacher training in knowledge and skills, but also based on ethics and respect for students ‘ autonomy .
For the author, the formation of the reflective teacher in nursing will require a series of redefinitions in teaching practice, especially regarding the development of certain knowledge and skills needed in the context of the teaching-learning process.
2.2.2. Better Teacher-Student Interaction
It must be geared towards achieving the proposed educational objectives, co-responsibility , partnership, team, dialogue and respect between adults.
For Faria (2003, p. 55), such a form of relationship would be conducive for teachers and students to bring their experiences, experiences, knowledge, interests, problems, so that they could be taken as references in the analysis of issues, serving as guidelines and clues for complementary actions. Thus, the teacher-student relationship would cease to be vertical and cultural imposition, to become construction and, together, significant knowledge, human and professional skills, ethical, political and social values, together researching and building knowledge.
Teamwork will be essential for future nurses. For this reason, it is necessary for the teacher to know how to deal with students in this aspect. Pedagogical practices based on adult education ( Paulo Freire’s andragogy ) would have enormous potential in related activities. The nurse-teacher could take the students’ experiences and relate them to nursing practice.
2.2.3. Change in Space
This item corresponds to a change in the physical space and circumstances of the teaching-learning environment, allowing greater interaction, participation, in physical spaces that may interest and motivate students.
According to Faria, the teaching-learning process must be defined seeking the development of learning in the areas of knowledge, skill and attitudes, being the art of teaching, in planning the activities that integrate the three areas in themselves.
The spaces that normally motivate students are those related to the practice of their professions. Therefore, nothing more motivating than the space of hospital establishments.
And here, we see the importance of professional competence: professional practice. Not only do the pedagogical teachings encompass, on the whole, teaching in nursing, the experience of the educator, it will be essential for the transmission of the content, since we are dealing here with a profession based on practice.
It is a great opportunity for debate between teacher and students, with analysis of readings and information brought by the group. The planning is joint, the activities are negotiated as moments of exposure, synthesis, discoveries and reflection.
2.2.4. Implementation of Participatory Techniques
For Faria (2003, p. 55), the teacher must reflect on how to introduce new techniques that enable the most effective teacher-student relationship, where both work and build knowledge together, creating motivation for student involvement. Changing teaching-learning techniques requires the teacher to learn a reasonable set of techniques, master their application, know how to make adaptations and even create new techniques, planning their use according to the objectives of the class or the theoretical content or practical to be taught.
For this reason, the importance of courses that lead nurses to learn these teaching practices, since we know that normal graduation does not offer subsidies for the training of a teacher in the field.
According to Faria (2003, p. 55), this change needs to be thought, planned and carried out in an integrated and coherent way to the proposed teaching-learning process, assuming the error as an opportunity to grow, from a retro-information , which comes from the teacher , the student, other students, and other elements that may be participating in the process. Such behavior helps the student to learn, to motivate him to learn more and more, overcoming tension and fear in favor of a chance to grow.
All the skills that were addressed above showed the need for teacher training. For this reason, we will analyze some forms of teacher training existing in the country today.
2.2.5. The Professional Training of Nursing Teachers
We try to clearly show at work what skills are needed for nursing teachers. This subject is, in fact, already widely studied in the specialized literature.
Competences are related to the intellectual, personal, interrelational and motivational capacities of teachers, of course, taking into account teacher training and education, based on continuing education.
There is, in contemporary times, the debate regarding this formation. For this reason, we will show some curricular changes in teacher training for nursing courses.
2.2.6. The Degree and Graduation in Nursing
The milestone for the nursing degree course dates back to 1972, with CEF opinion no. 163/72. From there, we have the qualification of the degree in nursing courses.
Contrary to the previous example, this type of training is geared towards secondary and elementary education (nursing technician and auxiliary courses), but it also has its importance in training people for the nursing area.
This sometimes causes prejudice against the course or low self-esteem on the part of its students. As stated by Farias (2008, p, 2), teaching about undergraduate education as a second option makes it difficult for nursing students to understand the complexity of the educational phenomenon, leading them to a limited understanding of the importance of undergraduate education for Technical Courses. Nursing courses, distributed throughout Brazil. Unlike other degrees, where students during their initial training seek to practice teaching in small schools, or in emergency contracts for teaching in the state where they live.
For not having such an extensive curriculum with the undergraduate curriculum, the student of the nursing degree has in its flowchart several disciplines focused on the pedagogical and didactic area.
This facilitates their absorption of knowledge and techniques, essential for the formation of the necessary skills for the high school nursing teacher.
According to Farias (2008, p. 2), during the course, a methodology based on field research in Medium Level Courses for Nursing Technicians is sought using ethnographic research resources, ensuring the insertion of the future nurse-teacher in the professional field of which you may be part of one day, in addition to providing training focused on educational praxis, understanding the nuances of pedagogical practice built in the daily lives of the investigated teachers.
Nursing graduation is not an easy task for students and teachers, it is necessary that universities provide ideal conditions for teaching the future nurse, that is, offering updated and modern materials and laboratories in order to train students for the supervised internship which normally occurs between the 7th and 8th semester of graduation. Being well prepared implies that the student has practical skills in the management of patients and in the care offered to them (SILVA, 2004).
“Evaluation, as a path criticism, is a necessary tool for human beings in the process of building results, it is a resizing of the direction of action”. (LUCKESI, 2002, p. 118).
It is necessary for the student to understand the importance of being part of study groups, scientific initiation and mainly of monitoring. The practice of monitoring, which is a pedagogical support service, is of paramount importance in order to develop techniques and deepen the theoretical content, the practice of monitoring reflects positively on the activities of supervised internships and the students who participate in such service are different of the others in relation to the skills with the patient (HAAG, 2008).
Students who are willing to take part in the monitoring are selected based on their academic development in the area of interest for the monitoring, availability of schedules and individual interview. This whole process aims to impartially select the monitor that will have the function of assisting other students with difficulties in learning certain subjects, when they arrive at the supervised internship in the last year of graduation they are safer and have an easier time applying techniques nursing (VALSECCHI, 2002).
Nursing education has undergone changes according to advances and social contexts. However, the student must be trained to work in precarious situations and in large centers with the latest equipment, there must be an understanding that nursing practice must be a priority and performed with dignity even in the face of situations without equipment. Nursing is the art of caring and not of surrendering to electronic devices (SILVA, 2004).
Stimulating the student’s motivation is necessary since it is an intimate condition of the individual, throughout the graduation it should be attributed to the student that nursing and humanization are one. So that there are no iatrogenic and / or omitted episodes in the future that present an imminent risk to the patient (ROCHA, 2000).
The evaluation of nursing learning is done through the integration of the university, professors and students and the incessant search for knowledge, however it is the student’s responsibility to participate directly and indirectly in extracurricular actions such as: congresses, symposia, lectures and campaigns for the promotion of health in order to add knowledge beyond the classroom and that will reflect positively in their supervised internship at the end of graduation (PINHÉL, 2006).
2.2.7. Theory and Practice – Subsidies for Integral Training
The relationship between theory and practice is an essential element in the training of health professionals.
Wong and Wong (1987, p.505) recognize clinical teaching as an essential component of professional education in care units, calling it the “heart” of professional education, and whose objectives are to prepare students for the application of previously acquired knowledge, in the care to be provided to users; acquire personal and professional skills, attitudes and values, necessary for professional socialization .
The same positioning is defended by Martin (1991, p.162) when referring that clinical teaching is a privileged means in the training of nursing students … it allows the intern to develop his professional identity, to learn his own way of learning or to learn. lay the foundations necessary for the construction of their professional knowledge.
In the conception of Silva e Silva (s / d, p.105) and with which I agree, in the nursing course it is essential to have a practical training (clinical teaching) that should alternate with theoretical training, because, as as we have already mentioned, the production of skills is not only up to the school but also to the workplace. It is in acting in a situation that competencies are developed or, in other words, the science and art of nursing care form an integrated whole.
These authors still suggest that there is no doubt that an articulation between the two training spaces will be necessary so that young people can develop skills that will not only serve for an easier transition from the school world to the work world and for a better professional socialization, as this articulation also enhances their personal and social development.
Nevertheless, Cabrito (1994, p.63) quotes Hangreaves, who says that in the work context, students and teachers are freed from the school bell and fragmented schedules that lead to artificial contacts between teachers and students.
According to the author, teachers and students can become “more human” with each other. In addition, away from school, students will be able to rediscover the meaning of their own work and skills and become more cooperative with each other by sharing real tasks and challenges .
An intertwining like this will provide multiple benefits – for students, teachers and the community that will have the professional assistance of this health professional.
As Silva and Silva (s / d, p.106) clearly point out, the context of clinical nursing education being an important source of content for the students’ curriculum , we know, however, that this context is not without problems, as, as Miller (1985, p.418) theorizes, unfortunately, “while teachers write and teach nursing as it should be (ideal nursing), service professionals practice it as it is (real nursing)”.
Miller (1985, p.418) also adds that one of the barriers that divides nurses into two groups, those that teach (the “theoretical”), and those that provide care (the “exercise”), is the difficulty of communicating .
In this sense, Santos (1986) agrees with Miller and states that the gap between training and exercise can only be resolved through a dialogue between people, but that it must be complemented by an institutional dialogue through its representative bodies.
Undoubtedly, the relational context in which a given theory will be applied must be considered, as, as Santos (1986) mentions, the tension existing between teaching and exercise is a fact accepted almost universally by all professions and in this aspect nursing it is no exception.
A priori, companies tend to value know-how and the school know-how, know how to think and learn to learn. They commonly forget that the different types of knowledge are interrelated and are part of a whole.
Jesus (1993, p.445) states that the question of integration between theory and practice, which is considered as one of the main difficulties of the training process depends on the way in which each trainee takes advantage of theoretical knowledge with perspectives on its practical implications.
Regarding nursing education, authors such as Figueiredo (1995), Espadinha (1997) and Franco (2000) end up citing reasons pertinent to a possible mismatch between theory and practice, including:
- The dichotomy between schools / services or between the image transmitted by books and classes and the reality of the wards with all the complexity of the situation of a single person;
- Traditional model of education in force in nursing schools where students’ personal and professional knowledge and experiences are not valued;
- Conflict between the explicit curriculum and the hidden curriculum, that is, the contradictions between what we want our students to do and what we do with them, for example, with regard to the student-teacher and teacher-student relationship;
- Older nurses complain about the lack of preparation of recent graduates and their difficulties in integrating into professional life;
- They also refer as a reason, the removal of nursing teachers from clinical practice and the devaluation of that same practice, which leads teachers to do a decontextualized teaching, outside of reality;
- The lack of clarity on the role of the teacher and the nurse in participating in clinical teaching.
Certainly, for the teacher, it becomes difficult to separate theory and practice and a description of reality if they are not part of the current context. How can the teacher teach his group of students about a reality of which he is not a part.
On the contrary, what is in effect is an absence of confidence in the theme to be addressed and, furthermore, as McCarthy (1987) points out, it fosters the idea that nurses in clinical practice consider teachers to be idealistic, unrealistic and very far from problems. the organization and execution of appropriate nurses’ interventions.
Certainly, this separation between theory and practice ends up being perceived by students who are surely confused about the application of real and ideal nursing and in this sense, Mestrinho (1997) refers that two subcultures are created with distinct and often opposite characteristics (a school and that of organizations), which can give students feelings of helplessness, helplessness, frustration and dissatisfaction, which can lead to an inadequate professional socialization process.
Johnson, (apud Amador, 1991, p.11), comments that this dichotomy between theory and practice results from the fact that teachers are considered as guests in most health services, a role that they are very careful not to violate; they may complain to other teachers about the limitations and inadequacies of the nursing service, but they rarely share these problems with the service nurses, even more rarely do they intervene directly to improve the quality of care provided by field nurses.
More emphatic Royer-Rastoll (1993, p.5) goes further and, regarding the practice relations ( terrain ) – school refers that the nurses of the practice sometimes affirm that “the trainers (teachers) are incompetent professionals who take refuge in the school ”And in turn the teachers affirm in relation to the nurses in practice, that“ the theory makes them afraid because it brings to light their incompetence ”.
Hinchliff (1982, p.47) when referring to the role of the nursing professor when in clinical teaching, affirms that all too often he is seen as a busybody, a representative of the nursing school who is there to criticize or as someone who it takes three hours to teach a student how to measure blood pressure.
The same author, in relation to clinical nursing education, says that the student should have time to provide care to patients, but also to discuss and evaluate them, so the workload should not be too heavy.
Faced with a highly capitalist, competitive world and in which profit is certainly the one that spoke louder, Rebelo (1996, p.16) points out that in most clinical services there is no space to reflect on the nursing care provided.
In the author’s opinion, it would be important for nurses in practice and those in schools to establish relationships and develop reflections inherent to real nursing care. Practical knowledge is fundamental to theory because theory without the prospect of resolution in practice is sterile, but practice without theory is blind .
Hesbeen (2000, p.136) also suggests that one should not seek at all costs the conformity of thought between the clinical and teaching environment: “different or discordant thoughts participate in the student’s open-mindedness and in broadening their points of view ”.
For this to be optimized, Crotty (1993) recommends that teachers keep their clinical credibility and knowledge up-to-date and schools should allocate time, on an annual basis, for teachers to work in clinical areas without the responsibility of teaching.
Brito and Costa (1998) justify saying that it is not only the theoretical aspects that evolve, the performance conditions also change and as such a good part of school nurses should be active nurses so that they take the contribution of life to school .
McCarthy (1987) states that nurse professors, when assuming the responsibility of providing nursing care in the wards and when exercising and teaching professional behavior alongside other nurses, conflicts would be reduced and patients’ treatment levels would increase.
The same author adds that, simultaneously, the bedside care nurse can be a key learning resource if instructed in teaching methods and used effectively.
In my opinion, students need two great skills: one is to learn to learn throughout life and the second to learn to live together, in society, sharing everything with others.
At this point, the importance of the reflective teacher should be emphasized, as they provide their pupils with the art of reflecting, thinking and making decisions that contribute to their personal and professional development.
2.2.8. Teacher Training in Stricto Senso Postgraduate Courses
As Pimentel (2007, p. 162) warns us, it is currently observed that masters and doctors are more qualified for the development of research, but are less prepared for the requirements of higher education.
Perhaps the concern with the preparation for teaching seems to be unnecessary, because the simple teaching of expository classes, as most Brazilians experience, is not an overly difficult task. However, considering the current moment of reflection on higher education in Nursing, in which curricular changes are being discussed based on the guidelines of the National Council of Education and the Higher Education Chamber, it is important to question whether teachers are trained for a practice teacher that is in line with the new perspectives that are placed in nursing education. This is a relevant issue, when it appears that the lack of preparation of teachers in university education, in general, has been pointed out as one of the factors that compromise the quality of training at higher level. (Pimentel, 2007, p. 162).
This author cites an effective example in the formation of skills for future teachers: the Program for the Improvement of Teaching at the University of São Paulo – PAE.
PAE is a program for graduate students whose main objective is to improve the training of these students for teaching at the undergraduate level. It consists of two stages:
Pedagogical preparation: aims to instrumentalize graduate students to participate in undergraduate education. This can occur through student participation and a discipline that addresses topics related to higher education, in conjunction with conferences with education specialists or through participation in the preparation of didactic material, discussions about curriculum, course menus or course planning, coordinated by teachers. ; and Supervised Teaching Internship: developed with specific subjects in the undergraduate curriculum. The graduate student participates in seminars, laboratory experiments, directed studies and discussion of topics in small groups, as well as shifts to clarify doubts and the evaluation of the students. The weekly workload is 6 hours. (Pimentel ET Al, 2007, p. 162-163)
In the research carried out by the author, with 40 students who were part of the program in the discipline “Nursing in Adult and Elderly Health”, she found that the PAE provided students with the opportunity to follow the planning, development and evaluation of the discipline, to participate in meetings on subjects related to the syllabus, discussions with professionals in the internship fields, aiming at making better use of the resources offered for teaching, in addition to preparing didactic materials and guiding undergraduate students in clinical case studies.
Iatrogen refers to an adverse effect, caused as a result of a medical procedure that aimed to remedy a certain pathology. This term can be used when referring to sequelae caused by side effects, due to the use of medication. Its origin derives from the Greek iatos (doctor) and genia (origin), a word commonly used to refer to errors made by health professionals, are sources of iatrogeny : medical error, negligence, euthanasia, illegible handwriting in prescriptions and forms, late diagnosis, cross infections, blood transfusions, inattention when submitting the patient to any type of medication and surgical procedure (ARAÚJO, 2006).
The iatrogenic is a significant episode involves an imminent risk that the patient’s life, the more severe complications are often associated with misdiagnosis, dosage errors and drug administration routes. Normally the ICUs (intensive care units) are the most affected by iatrogenesis due to the demand for the work pace, the activity of the nursing team is uninterrupted 24 hours a day, the demand and care are great, but they do not exempt patients. professionals to make mistakes (GALDINO, 2000).
It is necessary that there is constant training of nursing professionals who work in the ICUs , so that in fact the prevention of iatrogens occurs . Only with modern techniques, scientific basis and recycling of professionals that the iatrogenic index will be statistically lower (MANSOA, 2010).
For nursing, one of the main factors that help in the identification of iatrogenies is communication with the patient, even the non-verbal one, as it is extremely important to decipher the patients’ needs in all their dimensions. However, it is essential to pay attention to non-verbal communication expressed by signals transmitted by patients who do not have the functional capacity to verbalize their complaints and afflictions. When detecting the error, the professional must immediately communicate to the medical team so that, in common agreement, the appropriate conduct is traced (ARAÚJO, 2006).
The error process is understood as the occasion when a failure in a planned sequence occurs, resulting from the caregiver’s inattention or omission, the damage caused by this error is usually of serious origin, causes sequelae and can contribute to death of the patient The error is classified in two ways, omission (when it occurs due to lack of care) or commission (when a technique is used in an erroneous way), both of which cause damage to the patient’s general condition (MANSOA, 2010).
Studies often point to innumerable iatrogenesis resulting from human failure in the use of complex equipment that make up the Intensive Care Unit. It is necessary to constantly check for the correct follow-up of care protocols in order to minimize errors regarding patient care (PADILHA, 2002).
Specifically considering the nature of occurrences with medication in nursing, several authors point out a considerable range of possibilities, mentioning among them, the administration of drugs to switched patients, omission and excess of doses, erroneous dosage calculations, incorrect administration routes and application of incompatible drugs, which ends up exposing patients and professionals to a greater risk of accidents and their implications (MANETI, 1998 p.370)
The damage secondary to iatrogenesis is defined by iatrogenic disorders that are characterized by harmful consequences acquired by patients, as a direct or indirect consequence after a medical act and / or the health team. However, the damage caused by errors by the nursing staff can be avoided and minimized if the reversal is done quickly and effectively, thus freeing the patient from the “Nursing Assistance Syndrome” (REME, 2009).
The professional’s recklessness in relation to the non-verbal signs presented by the patients also contribute to the occurrence of misconduct and erroneous decision-making in relation to the patient’s real need. It is extremely important that all the patient’s signs and symptoms in the ICU are observed and taken into account before, during and after specifying a treatment (ARAÚJO, 2006).
The quality of academic training of health professionals must also be analyzed. Educational institutions should be more careful in relation to the scientific basis of the student and more rigid in disciplines and practical internships. The thorough evaluation of the student’s profile and future health professional when applied brings benefits to patients, especially those who are in the ICU because they are more weakened and depend on complex equipment that maintains their vital capacities (TAVARES, 2007).
According to the WHO (World Health Organization), checking into a hospital, especially in the emergency sector, is more risky than taking an aviation trip. Statistical data shows that millions of people die every year as a result of iatrogenic diseases in hospitals around the world. At the hospital, the risk of dying is 1 in 300 patients, while the risk of air accidents is 1 in 10 million passengers. The chances of iatrogenesis is 1 in 10, these indexes show that global health must be alert in order to avoid deaths that can be avoided.
In Brazil, it is estimated that surgical site infection occurs after 11% of all surgeries. However, there is evidence that these infections are underestimated, as they are underreported, considering that 12% to 84% manifest and are detected after hospital discharge. The professional has to provide safe, humanized care without fail during the assistance to the critical patient, that there is competence and responsibility and that the professional has knowledge, attention and criteria. It is necessary to eliminate prejudice, minimize costs and iatrogenies , technology does not replace contact or the presence of the professional with the patient, it must always work as a team (BARBOSA, 2009 p.424).
It is necessary to raise the awareness of the health professional about the preventive measures that must be taken in the ICU to minimize the incidence of iatrogenesis , thus contributing in fact to maintaining the health of the critical patient with quality. Many hospitals already adopt the safety protocol created by the WHO so that the chances of infection in the hospital are less and less, which eventually contributes to the evolution of the patient’s death (GALDINO, 2000).
2.4. Humanization in Nursing
Brazil is a theoretical example of its model of organization of the health system, with the implementation of SUS, an advance in the treatment of basic health care is expected, implying improvements in the quality of life of individuals who seek the public health service (CEBES) , 2004).
One of the priorities of SUS is the humanization of patient care, especially for those individuals who are in palliative care. This patient whose clinical condition is closed, that is, there is no possibility of cure regardless of the applied therapy, but ensuring the pain elimination of these patients respecting the individual’s rights and duties is part of the Humaniza SUS program, which ensures quality treatment respecting the patient terminal and providing the family and / or caregiver with the necessary psychological support to minimize the trauma caused by exposure to this situation (SANTANA, 2009).
The Unified Health System – SUS was created in 1988 in order to improve the quality of the public service offered in Brazil. The objective of SUS is to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases, eradicate immunopreventable diseases , humanize cancer treatment, improve care for women, assistance to pregnant women and newborns, vaccination for the elderly, treatment for drug addicts, improve therapeutic procedures, train health teams so that they can have a scientific basis and act ethically and effectively. However, it is necessary to constantly analyze Brazilian health in order to detect flaws that may cause harm to its users, so that there is a reliable analysis, the participation of the population is essential (TRAVASSOS, 1997).
Since the beginning, SUS has been based on three points: universalization, integration and equity, so that a quality public health service is ensured (MARINHO, 2001).
In fact, the changes brought about by the creation of SUS were relevant, however, even after 20 years of its implementation, the service provided is still not ideal, news is often broadcast about the lack of structure to provide humanized and quality care, so that there are effective improvements the population must participate, for example, providing services as community agents, facilitating the detection of failures to be remedied. SUS work is uninterrupted in order to improve the Brazilian health model that has already offered more benefits to the population since the creation of the single health system (NUNES, 2000).
This situation gives rise to reflection on what is meant by social justice and the right to health. It also highlights the need to recover the ideas of universality, equality and integrality, defended by the Sanitary Reform Movement and made concrete in the form of SUS principles, in the Federal Constitution and in the Organic Health Law (VIEIRA, 2008).
In order to minimize the occurrence of shortages in care and basic support to the Brazilian population, the three main points of SUS: integrality, universality and equity must be applied facts (MALTA, 2007).
2.5. Nursing Students’ View of Professional Ethics
It is considered antipositivist, but the most humane of activities in relation to health professionals. Nursing students seek constant learning and experience in order to offer the patient dignified care regardless of their clinical condition, impartiality is also a hallmark of nursing care, all patient wishes in relation to care must be respected in order to offer humanized support (BRAGA, 2006).
By valuing the humanization of interpersonal relationships, we are facilitating the intellectual and emotional growth of the human being, because, for this, we activate skills for the establishment of constructive relationships, in order to obtain the understanding and acquiescence of those who need help. In situations where the student is allowed to perceive himself as a person and show himself not only as a professional, his participation in the process is intensified and valued, and these experiences are recognized as significant contributions to his education. This view is considered antipositivist and the most humane of the activities of health professionals, which can contribute to an effective, more empathic and, consequently, more ethical contact, between them and the assisted population. However, we know the difficulties to be overcome when we talk about working on personal issues in the training of professionals. Several studies point to concrete elements of these difficulties, showing that this movement is fraught with internal resistance, fear of dealing with emotions and feelings and, generally, it is left aside, due to the attendance of the technical aspects to be considered, primarily, in the attendance in health (ESPERIDIÃO, 2002, p. 06).
In terms of ethical theory, nurses seek to maintain the dignity of patients in the face of all procedures to which they are subjected in the hospital. Confidentiality is another important topic that needs to be mentioned when talking about ethics in the nurse’s performance, that is, the information provided by the patient should be used only in order to outline a course of action for their clinical condition aiming at their health benefit (FERREIRA, 2006).
In the case of nurses, the Nursing Ethics Committee of the Entities has the educational, opinionated, consultative, supervisory and advisory purpose on ethical issues related to the exercise of the profession, during performance in care, teaching, research and administration. Among the competencies foreseen for this Committee, according to Decision No. 18 of COREN-SC, it is stated in Art. 12, paragraph 11, that its members must inspect “the quality of care provided to the clientele by nursing professionals, the conditions offered by the entity and their compatibility with ethical and professional performance “. When interpreting these competences superficially, they probably understand only what relates to the technicality of nursing care, without taking into account the individual and emotional aspects of patients regarding the preservation of their intimacy, personal and territorial space. However, “health”, for the World Health Organization (WHO), is not merely the absence of disease, but also the individual’s complete physical, psychological and social well-being, measuring this problem, but which is rarely addressed, although cause a lot of “malaise” to the sick individual (PUPULIM, 2002, p. 02).
The nurse-patient relationship must be based on honesty, in order to promote the best support for the patient’s pathology. It is the nurse’s responsibility to pay attention to the verbal and non-verbal signals shown by the patient so that the autonomy in relation to the care remains (ESPERIDIÃO, 2002).
Currently, there is a great controversy in relation to ethics and nursing professionals referring to religious issues, sexuality, political issues, impartiality and especially the conduct of this professional who is based on the constant improvement and updating of care support and decision making in relation to patients (PUPULIM, 2002).
The desired profile of graduates of Undergraduate Nursing Courses in Brazil refers to a professional capable of intervening in low, medium and high complexity health services. On the one hand, technoscience centered on hospitals and diagnostic centers of high complexity; on the other hand, hunger, misery, injustice, political corruption, the allocation of resources and the distribution of health services place nurses in a dichotomized context , which requires professionals to be critical in order to make ethical and moral decisions. The pluralism of today’s human society, the complexity of health problems and the sophistication of technology impose on the educational system the need to rethink its role as a facilitator and promoter of the development of the student’s ability to make decisions (FERREIRA, 2006 p. 329).
In view of these factors and context, the nursing student needs to be trained to add patient care, values and respect to the lifestyle of each individual (BRAGA, 2006).
2.6. The Nursing Student’s View of the Labor Market
The nursing student’s view of the labor market is matured throughout graduation, since at the beginning nursing practice is seen by students as just a “gift” to help and assist people who perish due to some pathology (MARTINS , 2006).
However, throughout the academic experience, students adopt a different posture in relation to the job market, especially after being subjected to experiences and supervised internships, in this stage, in view of the difficulties presented in relation to care and mainly to public health , students develop the critical sense that they must make a difference and that for this to happen it is necessary to keep up to date (RODRIGUES, 2001).
In fact, when work involves caring, it is experienced with greater nobility in relation to other activities. However, this playful vision does not add knowledge to the student’s curriculum and it should be encouraged by the educational institution and by the teachers to seek more and more theoretical knowledge and the improvement of the techniques used to assistants, technicians and nurses (SCHERER, 2006 ).
It is the responsibility of the educational institution, as mentioned in the previous chapter, to offer nursing students updated theoretical material and trained teachers in order to improve future professionals in the field so that the techniques that are the responsibility of the nursing team are applied with greater skill. by students and future professionals (MARTINS, 2006).
2.7. The Nursing Profession
The great master Dalai Lama said that taking the initiative to help others can be as essential to our nature as communication.
According to Cisneros (1954, p.18-19), the history of medicine could be divided, regardless of culture or civilization, into three stages: empirical medicine, the theurgical period and scientific medicine. It was Hippocrates (5th century BC ) who initiated scientific medicine in the West, dedicating himself to the study of the human body, the symptoms of diseases, the hereditary and environmental influences on them, as well as the effects of therapies, through continuous and detailed observation of the disease. framework, endeavoring to give a rational explanation of the facts.
Authors such as Hall (1985); Paim (1986) and Littlejohn (1978) clarify that the association between nursing and religion, deeply linked to a charitable and philanthropic value, persisted until the 16th century, when, as a result of the Protestant Reformation, it generated a crisis known as the “black period” or “obscure period” of nursing, which determined the closure of hospitals and the expulsion of religious who worked there.
According to Brant (1994), the countries that joined the Reformation had to replace the Catholic religious who worked in their hospitals, with lay people without any training, and what was ‘worse’, without the qualities required at the time.
According to Foucault (1982, p.296) until the middle of the 18th century, the existing hospital in Europe was essentially an assistance to the poor. Assistance institution, as well as separation and exclusion. The poor as poor are in need of assistance, and as a sick person, with a disease and possible contagion, it is dangerous. For this reason, the hospital must be present, both to collect it and to protect others from the danger it incarnates.
Foucault (1990) explains that from the 18th century onwards, the hospital loses the penance and mercy missions of the Middle Ages and becomes, in short, a place of treatment and recovery, by incorporating the scientificism of medicine.
In this sense, Rosen (1994, p.108) states that the community of the 16th and 17th centuries, and even of the 18th, dealt with the problems of epidemic diseases, medical assistance, environmental sanitation and water supply in much the same way as the medieval.
For the author, the administrative pattern of the Middle Ages persisted, and would not be changed until the 19th century. During that seminal period, however, the ground for change was being prepared.
The studies by Gonçalves and Sena (1998, p.4) report that in England, in the 19th century, professional or modern nursing was born, under the auspices of its founder, Florence Nightingale . The mode of production of industrial society based on the capitalist model determined that the organization of nursing should take place basically within the hospital space.
In this same perspective, the authors explain that the expansion of capitalism created conditions for the so-called Nightingal system to spread gradually to other countries such as Germany, Sweden, Canada, the United States and Brazil.
For Pires (1989, p.121), professional or modern nursing is born under the capitalist production mode and is organized within its precepts, that is, within the hospital institution, having business principles and leaving the job to the management competence.
The author also states that Nightingal Nursing is based on training in its own schools, attached to a hospital, rigorous selection of students, methodical teaching with training in the form of boarding schools, among others and is spread throughout the Western world, influencing the structuring of the new profession.
Melo (1986, p.94) clarifies that in the 13th century, with the advent of secular orders, what could be called the introduction of nursing in hospitals through religious people occurred. Deacons and deacons took over the care of the destitute and sick poor. The religious sought to save their souls, saving the souls of the sick through care.
Gonçalves and Sena (1998, p.4) affirm that nursing performed in the hospital constituted a care practice with different objectives from medical practice. Made by women who opted for convent life , it had a charitable character and, therefore, no economic exchange. The practical rules of caring work were learned by the newcomers with the most experienced.
In the reports by Foucault (1978, p.68), it is evident that in the history of patient care in the West, there were actually two distinct classes that did not overlap, that sometimes met, but that differed fundamentally, namely: medical and hospital (…). Hospital personnel were not destined to heal the sick, but to achieve their own salvation.
According to Rizzotto (1999, apud Villar , p.37), the initial milestone of modern Brazilian Nursing took place in 1922, when Dr. Carlos Chagas created the School of Nurses of the National Department of Public Health, using the Nightingale system as a model , currently Anna Nery School of Nursing.
The author also teaches that the professionalization of Nursing was directed to the hospital area by dominant interests, as we can see by the creation of the Alfredo Pinto School of Nursing in 1890, linked to the psychiatric hospital, the Cruz Vermelha School of Nursing, in 1916, in addition to the training courses for nursing personnel in military hospitals.
So, for a better understanding of the origin of the nursing profession, Kltemberg and Siqueira (s / d, p.62) clarify that in Brazil, since colonization, epidemics have spread freely, mainly affecting urban centers. Health resources were precarious or almost nonexistent. Medicine in Brazil was largely exercised by barbers, barber surgeons and physicists.
According to Filho (1947), extensive regions of the country, populated without counting, did not even have a barber for bleeding and first aid. The people took any foreign traveler as a doctor and soon ran around begging for an examination.
As you can see, the precarious situation in the health sector dates back to ancient times and according to Kltemberg and Siqueira (s / d, p.62) s and in the case of Medicine the situation was dramatic, what could be said then, of the services of care and care for patients. Most of these were left to the families themselves, in the figure of the “mother”; or charitable initiatives, such as the Santas Casas de Misericórdia and religious orders, following the Portuguese model.
The authors also explain that the arrival of foreign health professionals, starting in 1808, was driven by the arrival of the Portuguese Court that settled in Brazil fleeing the Napoleonic troops. The royal family, with the help of English, moved with about 20 thousand people, bringing with them several metropolitan institutions, reproducing in Brazil the administrative apparatus of the Portuguese State.
According to Alarcón (2000), it is urgent to reconstruct our knowledge, practices and reflections, incorporating these new meanings, in order to produce different ways of identifying what is called care and care, in the scenario of ontological and epistemological construction of the process of live in the world, and not just live in a scenario of health and illness.
Thus, Carvalho (2003, p.15) clarifies that nursing lacks research that underlies its know-how and that points to new perspectives of action, striving for more autonomy in line with the ethical-legal precepts of the profession. The enrichment of his theoretical corpus will take place from a critical look at his work environment, subsidized by the precepts of the scientific method, where regardless of his place of operation, he proposes new techniques and technologies of care, aiming at a greater and better assistance to those in need of care.
Thus, the new scenario that is envisioned, generates in the nursing team a great challenge, which is to reconstruct their know-how from new ways of interpreting what is care, caring and being cared for.
CHAPTER III. THE EXPECTATIONS OF THE 21st CENTURY AND THE HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHER
3.1. The Challenges of the Educator in 21st Century Education
The changes in education determine the propitious moment for the educator to rethink his educational practice in his condition of fragility in working with the challenges of the time, with new technologies, differentiated learning, the ability to work in groups and organize situations that enable critical learning .
In Marques (2001) view, the crucial issue of training education professionals in elementary education is at the basis of the separation between those who think and decide on education policies and those who carry it out on a daily basis, condemned to practices disconnected from social reality. It is essential that the continuous training of teachers can offer the trainees a better performance with the student.
The training of teachers has become the central project of the Faculties of Education of the country, the concern is centered on the changes introduced by the new educational legislation with regard to the teacher training policy and the locus of this training. In this regard, it is intended to question the role of the Faculties of Education in the context of educational policies for the training of elementary school teachers.
The nature of the changes was reflected in the concern with the quality of teaching action, a fact that reflected in a greater reflection on the training and professionalization of teachers, as well as the opening of debates and discussions on the need to reverse the crisis in education and implement the qualification of teachers quickly.
As a result of this need for professional training, a negative fact started to reassess the teaching quality process: the emergence of courses and vacancies, without this growth being accompanied by operational quality. The implications that affect a deficient teacher education to guarantee to the professional, the subsidies to face the dynamic challenges of its performance, of knowledge product.
The profession of teacher is linked to the epistemological and ethical dimension of the profession, in the construction of a new professional identity in its meaning, in the sense of valuing the profession, also highlighting the attention to the subjective aspects of professionalism, among them, those related to the identification , professional adherence, feelings related to being and being in the profession, which means identifying with the social role of transformation.
According to Perrenoud (2002, p. 33), “a learning situation is inscribed in a device that makes it possible and, sometimes, in a didactic sequence in which each situation is a step in a progression”.
It is understood that professional competence consists in the search for a wide repertoire of devices and sequences in their adaptation or construction of learning.
Thus, for Perrenoud (2002), the teacher’s competence is twofold: investing in adjusting the problem situations to the level and possibilities of the students; also manifesting live, in real time, to guide didactic improvisation and regulatory actions.
3.2 . The Four Pillars of Education for the 21st Century
The production of knowledge at the university occurs through research and extension in the exchange of ideas , participation in constructive initiatives. In these terms, the university body formed by teachers and academics needs to commit to reflection, research and exchange with other universities and with the public school, in order to produce knowledge, enriching experiences.
The crisis that the university is facing is the search for an educational quality that is not yet defined in relation to the problems raised by education, we are looking for a way to make a university that implements quality and at the same time makes the university space more democratic. .
In this context, it is not enough for the educator to only master the content, but it is essential that the construction of knowledge can take place in open situations that involve complex situations.
The didactic-pedagogical performance involves a relational aspect between practice and theory, between the transmission of knowledge and the transformation of that knowledge into a meaningful learning within the reality experienced in the historical and sociocultural moment.
The so-called “Jacques Delors Report” resulted from the work carried out, from 1993 to 1996, by the International Commission on Education for the 21st century, of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), with which educators from the whole world. Published in Brazil under the title of Education – a treasure to be discovered (2000/1) and, it represents the synthesis of the official pedagogical thought of humanity, in this end of the millennium, since it was formulated and launched under the seal of the maximum organ responsible for the sector on the planet. Therefore, there is no way to consider the “Necessary Re-learnings” for men and women of the 21st century, ignoring this Report.
According to Delors, the education needed for the century to begin could be summarized in one of its paragraphs:
In order to be able to provide answers to the set of its missions, education must be organized around four fundamental learnings that, throughout life, will be in some way for each individual, the pillars of knowledge: learning to know, that is acquire the instruments of understanding; learn to do, to be able to act on the environment; learn to live together in order to participate and cooperate with others in all human activities; finally learn to be, an essential path that integrates the three precedents. It is clear that these four paths of knowledge constitute only one, given that there are multiple points of contact, relationship and exchange between them. DELORS REPORT / UNESCO / 2000/2001
The four pillars of fundamental learning that, throughout life, must be part of the general knowledge that is based on the proposals reported in the Delors report .
This basic document of contemporary pedagogical thought considers that men and women of the 21st century will need four “apprenticeships” essential for their personal and collective fulfillment and that will run throughout their existence. In other words, these learnings are inserted in the perspective of “permanent education”, of “continuing education”. BRASÍLIA, DF: MEC: UNESCO, 2003.
The four pillars of education or four learnings become true pillars of life itself and, thus, become the most interesting perspective in Education as they carry all dimensions of human achievement.
It is recognized that the process of learning knowledge is never finished, and can be enriched by any experience with the impulse of the bases that make them continue to learn throughout life, at work, but also outside it. DELORS / UNESCO / 2000/1 REPORT.
Learning represents, today, one of the biggest challenges of education. Especially with regard to the real situation of universities offering quality education and a more critical worldview.
3.3 . The P adrões of Q uality and ducativa to D ocente the AND nsino S uperior
The very notion of the term “educational quality” in higher education is still an abstract term. It is known that defining educational quality is a complex task, taking into account that the university itself needs to define the concepts of quality in higher education.
The qualified teacher tends to teach with the necessary critical sense, knowledge of the political-social reality and that is capable of transforming the content into meaningful learning, that this knowledge is creative and innovative.
In fact, this profile of a teaching professional is rare. Some teachers are competent in certain learning situations, but do not fully master other important educational aspects. In the view of Lisita and Peixoto (2001, p. 1):
The educator’s challenges are still related to the dialectic between theory and practice, conditions that only result from training and professionalization. Hence, the challenges of training a teacher who has not only a diploma, but mastery of knowledge from a critical and creative perspective.
Technological advances that have brought computer science to the scope of the daily life of university students and graduates have demanded from universities, colleges and schools in general, a better operating infrastructure that can offer practical conditions for accessing communication and the use of technologies. This change generated a reflection on educational methods and the need to intensify the diversification of teaching resources to enrich the experiences of the educational process. According to Perrenoud (2000, p. 37):
The teacher profile most adapted to the new conjunctures of the labor market is one that does not fear changes, that is always in the whirlwind of new transformations and that manages to involve academics in research activities, in knowledge projects, so that there can be a relationship direct relationship between knowledge and research.
Certainly, the university teaching profile should be focused on projects, research and extension for the construction of living and dynamic knowledge. Therefore, only the use of didactic-pedagogical resources is not enough to organize and direct learning situations. It is essential that the teacher masters the knowledge and more than that, that he knows how to make it meaningful in face of reality, confronting it with practice. .
The professor finds himself in a dilemma: the pressure from universities for continuing education and the quality of teaching maintained at the expense of himself generally, with difficulties in relation to financial issues, if he stops fighting for improvements in his professional activity, starting from continuous courses, recycling and innovations in the didactic-pedagogical field may be considered expendable in the eyes of the educational institution, in the case of private universities.
Although higher education has improved the specific qualification of teachers for teaching in higher education, there is still no indication that these professionals will be prepared to exercise the skills that pedagogy requires, based on the desired efficiency in the classroom.
3.4. Excellence in Higher Education
In modern society, we begin to realize that to enter the job market, it is necessary to invest in continuous learning, that is, it is necessary to have new knowledge and changes in what has already been institutionalized. And the first step is the search for excellence in Higher Education, there the student will be considered a professional academic. (BALDI, 2010)
He defines the academic as the historical being, the heir of his childhood, out of adolescence, on his way to old age, continues the process of socializing his being and his personality. Therefore, the academic is this being who seeks to “finish, complete each day, precisely because he is the academic, an unfinished being. In this sense, he seeks his “adulthood”, the result of a progressive achievement of individual autonomy in his “transit” through life. (BALDI, 2010, p. 32)
When the individual reaches adulthood, he learns to be independent, over the years he accumulates life experiences, he learns from his own mistakes, he learns to learn, and how much this is important to him. The academic already comes with accumulated experience, favoring learning and the development of the ability to learn new knowledge. (BALDI, 2010)
The pursuit of excellence in higher education has these requirements, which are:
Maintain, consolidate and enrich the interests of the adult to open up new perspectives on professional, cultural, social, political and family life;
Guide the adult in the search for new directions of a prospective character, which lead to the idea of perfecting and progressing;
Update the adult, renew their knowledge so that they continue to learn, investigate, reformulate concepts and enrich their cultural, scientific and technological lives;
Project knowledge to the human dimension so that it can be interpreted in its essence and recognize its role as a responsible participant for life on the planet. (PERRENOUD, 2010, p. 3)
Higher education is important for the development of any individual, not only for the preparation of a career, but, in addition, because it provides them with a broad life experience through learning. (PERRENOUD, 2010)
Adults are well aware of the decisions they will make in their lives and expect other people to treat them as individuals who are capable of managing themselves. And there is no way that other aspects related to adult student profiles are missing. (OLIVER, 2012)
Curricular flexibility should mean taking advantage of the diverse experiences that these students bring with them, for example, the ways in which they work their times and their daily lives. Flexibility can meet this type of time through modules, combinations between face-to-face and non-face-to-face teaching, and a harmony with themes of students’ daily lives, so that they can become elements that generate a relevant curriculum. It is necessary to know the impact of the media on students. OLIVER, 2012, p. 31)
The teacher needs to motivate students in the decisions made by him and in all stages of his education, encouraging the group as such. The student’s identity is built through his experiences acquired throughout his journey, and it is the internal pressures and support that are his biggest motivating factors. (OLIVER, 2012)
We understand that getting out of classical education and starting new andragogical approaches is not an easy task. However, for this process to be easy, the faculty needs to be well prepared and involved, mainly through andragogical programs. In this way, teachers need to carry out continuous training so that they can attend and understand this audience. (OLIVER, 2012)
Higher education over time has been left on the sidelines, with few actors struggling for its organization and quality. It is a difficult and slow process, given the existing barriers. However, fight cells always appear, seeking the best for this modality, seeking through partnerships to guarantee the subjective public right to the education of university students. (CORAGGIO, 2009)
The effective function that exists in higher education is to help the individual to develop the academic knowledge necessary to achieve their career goal. It is clear that in order to have a career it is necessary to have specialization in a certain area, and that is where educational institutions such as colleges and universities come in, they are the ones who transmit knowledge to the university student. And we consider this fundamental for the development of the individual, as he will feel confident in his determined area of activity, which is important for professional success. (TOMMASI, 2011)
Not all higher education, however, is academic. Some higher education institutions, such as vocational schools and business or technological development centers , for example, allow a person to learn the practical skills necessary to succeed in a career. These skills are important for individual development, as they help a person develop the skill necessary to succeed in technical careers, such as mechanics or cosmetology. Such skills can bring personal fulfillment and satisfaction, as well as a successful career. (TOMMASI, 2011, p. 57)
In addition to the benefits that higher education offers, many other higher education institutions provide extracurricular activities and clubs for students. The interaction of these groups favors social interactions and from different origins with several different stories. Therefore, we believe that higher education encourages individuals to become active in their communities and conomias , and it is presumed that this will be part of your life. (TOMMASI, 2011)
3.5. H istorical and Significance of C urrículo
The curriculum for some time has ceased to be an extremely technical area, which was used for questions of analysis of procedures, techniques and methods. Today we can already count on a curriculum formulated from sociological, political and epistemological criticisms . The curriculum is linked to power relations, particular and interested social views, and can produce individual and socio-particular identities. On the other hand, it has a history, linked to specific and contingent forms of society organizations and professional education ( SILVA AND MOREIRA , 1996).
Therefore, to speak of a curriculum, we consider it necessary to know its initial history from the meaning of the word to the structure it presents today.
According to Revista Presença Pedagógica (n. 7, p. 23), the term curriculum is derived from the Latin word “ curriculum ” , which means “athletic track or circuit” and can also have other meanings with “order as a sequence ” or “Order as structure”.
According to the same source (p. 27), since it was introduced in the field of pedagogy, its meanings have been many, that is, “systematic arrangement of subjects”, “list of subjects and contents” and even strategies to prepare the young person for the adulthood. The text also informs us that “the curriculum has been understood as a cultural artifact, as it translates values, thoughts and perspectives of a certain time or society”.
On the other hand, based on Silva and Moreira (1996), we can say that the curriculum has always been a controversial subject and the target of attention for those who seek to understand and organize the school educational system.
But it was only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, in the United States, that countless educators began studies to solve problems and curricular issues and thus a new field emerged, with several versions in specialized literature.
Authors such as Cremin (1975), Seguel (1966), Franklin (1974), Pinar ; Grunet (1981), mentioned in the same work, had in common a broader purpose, which seems to have been to “scientifically” plan pedagogical activities and to control them, preventing the student’s behavior and thinking from deviating from goals and standards predefined.
According to Silva and Moreira (1996, p.9), the entire socio-historical context of curriculum development began in the United States, after the civil war. The industrialization and urbanization of society led to the creation of a common national project , which could maintain the preservation of the type of life and homogeneity, which was impossible due to the presence of immigrants and their different customs. This project aimed to “teach immigrant children the beliefs and behaviors worthy of being adopted”.
Thus, the school was chosen to play this role along with the economic, social and cultural transformations that occurred at that time, and the curriculum was considered as the instrument par excellence of social control, making the school incubate itself in creating values, conducts and “proper” habits. The concern with vocational vocational education also arose in the same period , since it was necessary to adjust the school to economic needs.
According to Kliebard (1974, apud Silva and Moreira, 1996, p.11), there are two trends that should be observed in these first studies. According to the first, it was necessary “a curriculum that values the student’s interests” and, according to the other, it was necessary “for the scientific construction of a curriculum, so that it could develop the aspects of the adult personality then considered desirable”. The first had an influence in Brazil, in the so-called scholovism , and the second in technicality.
During the course of events, some milestones were important for changes in the structures of the disciplines, which occurred more intensely after the launch of Sputnik by the Russians in 1957, causing the Americans to blame educators, especially progressive ones, for the defeat in the space race. Thus the North American school was restored. Federal aid was requested, and changes, reforms to curricula and programs, materials, strategies and teacher training were implemented in the 1960s, due to the injustices and social inequalities that existed until then.
Therefore, in that decade, non-conformed educators emerged and were interested in denouncing the role of the curriculum and the school in the reproduction of the social structure, concerned with serving the oppressed groups and creating a school and curriculum that favored and served the interests of these groups, supporting them based on social theories to justify their proposals.
Two very important trends developed after a conference at the University of Rochester in 1973. One supported by neomarxism and critical theory, in which Michael Apple and Henry Girroux stand out , and the other, humanist and hermeneutic, whose main representative is William Pinar . For neomarxists, humanists placed the social basis and contingency of individual experience in the background, while humanists accused the former of subordinating human experience to class structure.
New trends emerged, however, in the late seventies, and these helped in the analysis and understanding of other issues. The reconceitulistas , followers of the neo-Marxist, were the creators in the United States, the so-called Curriculum Sociology, which aims and concern examine the relationship between curriculum and social structure, culture, ideology, social control, among others. ( SILVA and MOREIRA , 1996)
This new approach discusses the ways in which the curriculum can work for the oppressed classes or, on the contrary, contribute – both in the formal curriculum and in the occult one – to make social inequality. ( SILVA and MOREIRA , 1996)
With the same intentions, a current appears in England, in the field of the sociology of professional education , called New Sociology of Professional Education (NSE). This group investigates and discusses the relationship between the stratification of school knowledge and social stratification. (Revista Presença Pedagógica, no. 7).
3.5 .1 . Theory and Curricular Organization
From a prototype, but traditionally vertical, built around the interests of teachers to the formative role of the curriculum, we have, over time, followed the transition of ways in which this instrument should contribute to the construction of knowledge and professional identities and, thus, to the transformation of society . Thus, in this line , we start from the assumption that the curriculum has meanings that go far beyond those to which traditional theories confine us . The curriculum is place, space and territory. The curriculum is about controlling. The curriculum is trajectory, travel, trajectory. The curriculum is autobiography, our life, curriculum; our identity is forged in the curriculum. The curriculum is written, prayer, document. The curriculum is an identity document (Silva, 2005).
If a curriculum is understood as an identity document , it means that it identifies something related to a training course and the components present in it, such as students, teachers, the institution itself, its objectives and its interfaces. Lopes (2002: pp. 130), says that “the curriculum term in c school otidiano puts us in the field of school life of each and every one of the days, and on pathways and personal experiences, collectively experienced, resentful, or not.
In a way, the curriculum is neither a program, nor a project, nor even a project. It is the place of teaching that doesn’t even work, institutional culture ”. In the traditional curriculum, for example, the Teaching Plans were characterized as a way of organizing instructional work. Concentrated to any particular discipline, teaching elaborated his project with the components distributed in identification (name of discipline, time burden, class, season, etc . ) Menu, goals (general and specific standard), content topics, methodology or strategy teaching, assessment and bibliography.
When we talk about curriculum, it is important to question what we mean by curriculum, how we represent it and the meanings we attribute to the term, or how it is perceived from the perspective of a few authors who have looked at this practice and development studies at the same time. over the years. In the more traditional, limited view, there are those who consider curriculum as a set of contents to be taught or expression with an approximate sense of program. Also, in a broader view, we understand curriculum as a training project in its total dimension, currently used the term Pedagogical Political Project, because the curriculum has a purposeful political action. As a training project, whether at school or university level, the curriculum is not limited to the contents to be taught and learned, thus, in the dimension of discovering, but it expands to the dimensions of being, becoming, becoming , to determine, to intervene and to subsist and live with others (Leite, 2002). In this way, the notion of curriculum is extended to the notion of curriculum theory.
The curriculum, from the perspective of multiculturalism, must be perceived as the set of processes of cultural selection, organization, construction and reconstruction (in its broad sense), that is, as everything that exists as a project and recipe and everything that occurs in a context and in a real school education situation ”(Leite, 2002, p. 89). The context must be understood as a human development scenario when the curriculum is seen as an interaction system consisting of different subsystems that are sections of each other as explained by Lopes and Pereira (2012), that is, microsystem (what happens in classes ), mesosystem (what happens within schools), exosystem (educational policies and educational systems) and macro – system (cultural models in a given season).
According to curriculum theory there is an elevation between “formal” curriculum – laws and study design , eg, objectively defining what is being learned – “informal” curriculum – in relation to what is truly shaped by teachers and students through teaching and learning processes (handouts, level summaries and plans, teaching notes, eg) – and “hidden” curriculum – focusing on unintended aspects of the teaching place and classes, climates that do not hinder have an impact on student learning and in training (Pacheco, 1996 cited by Lopes, Pereira, 2012).
I argue the historiography on curriculum theory Tomaz Tadeu da Silva points out that they emerge from the notion of prayer, that is, the meaning of curriculum varies according to the method that it is defined by different authors and theories, therefore, we will present a brief historical synopsis how the curriculum has been defined in different theoretical perspectives. The notion of theory gives us the theory of what is represented, of an image, of a truth that precedes it (Silva, 2005)
Any curriculum theory must answer the basic questions: what knowledge should be taught? What should learners discover? What knowledge or discover is considered essential, valid or compelling to deserve to be considered part of the curriculum? It is not our objective to present the different curricular concepts that guided university teaching in Brazil, in general, and in nursing privately, however, to place the place of the discipline History of Nursing in the undergraduate nursing curriculum, it is important to describe the curriculum theories that they guided higher education until we reached the perspective of competency training.
The concept of curriculum theory presupposes “that there is, out there, waiting to be an invention, described and explained, something called curriculum”, in this way, “the curriculum would be an object that would precede the theory, which would only enter the scene for describe it, explain it ”(Silva, 2005). Although one or another definition, the curriculum seeks to modify a persona , in this way it confers identity.
It is necessary to consider what kind of man desirable for a certain class of society. If we want to train a critical, reflective, humanistic, ethical nurse, committed to the profession, initial training plays an essential role in this process and certainly, in front of training, there is a didactic project involved, there is a curriculum that directs this training. For any professional prototype that we want to form, a class of knowledge corresponds, a genre of curriculum, that is, if this curriculum is thought in an uncritical, neutral, bureaucratic and mechanical way, the reverse of this will be a professional with the same peculiarities.
Pacheco (2005) in his curricular studies says that in 1663 the term “curriculum” was dictionaryized for the first time, with the sense of course, imposed on the instructional vocabulary. Etymologically, the term curriculum has its root from the Latin curriculum which means “race track”, that is, in the training trajectory , at any level and here exclusively in training to become a professional, we understand that this “track” will take us to a fado and to give us someone. Associated with this, we must take into account that knowledge is vitally involved in the training process, in our identity and in our subjectivity. It is in this aspect of the training of identity and subjectivity that new curriculum theories have developed.
There is no single and true definition of curriculum that aggregates each and every one of the principles around the structuring of educational activities, consequently it becomes multiple and at the same time dubious chipping away from just one definition. The curriculum lexeme, native to the Latin ethyme currere means path, journey, trajectory, accompanying trajectory , providing a double meaning, of an ordered sequence and another of totality of studies (Pacheco, 2005).
Based on the curricular conceptions of Gimeno Sacristán (1988), the curriculum expresses the meaning of a review of academic requirements, arising from the academic traditionalism of the disciplines that constitute the curricular spirit, and is transformed into a technological and efficient legacy .
From the post-structuralist perspective, the curriculum is an expression with an approximate meaning of being capable. Separating content is an operation to achieve, to privilege a class of knowledge, to highlight, among the multiple possessions, an identity or subjectivity as being the ideal, it is an operation of being able (Silva, 2005). Ivor Goodson also points out that the curriculum and its structuring elements of knowledge, socially approved, develop disciplining processes, a study used by Marinha Carneiro (2008) on the training process of midwives in Portugal.
Goodson (2007) questions about the ways in which curriculum development incorporates the principle of social sharing of work and seeks to overcome the work of curriculum that conveys “false neutrality and the concealment of interests that the curriculum appears”.
Although it is constantly presented as a qualifier, the curriculum should add modalities of disqualification, by focusing dedication on certain types of knowledge and ignoring or improbating others (Carneiro, 2008, p. 39). Knowledge that is taught through disciplines (school or academic) that, in the view of Goodson (2007), are not defined in a disinterested academic way, but rather in a close relationship with the control and interests of social groups. The more powerful the social group is, the more likely it is that it will be able to train on school knowledge.
It is precisely this question of being able to separate traditional curriculum theories from critical and post-critical theories, as Tomaz Tadeu da Silva (2005) puts it. While traditional theories are characterized as neutral, scientific, disinterested, impartial, and are concerned with the organization itself, with “what” to teach, critical and post-critical theories disagree to the contrary, highlighting the relationships of control that lie ahead. behind the curriculum, because they question “how to teach”, “how to learn”, problematizing and answering the “justification” question. Why privilege a certain gender of identity and not another?
To elucidate the three main strands of categories of theories, we use Screen 2 presented by Silva (2005), when the person in charge highlights the principles that any one of them emphasizes. It is the search for the assimilation of Post-Critical Theories that we seek to direct our efforts in professional training, with the objective of having nurses who understand and value the identity of themselves and the other, who know how to work with differences, who deconstructs misrepresentations in all and each one of the dimensions of care, also knows how to respect different cultures, freely from issues of gender, culture, race and debauchery, in this way, that is multicultural, multidisciplinary, “ transhumanized ”.
Painting. Curriculum Theories and Main Concepts
Frankin Bobbitt was the origin of any discussion of curricular organization in the field of Traditional Theories, of which the founder of the thought that characterized technical education for several years was Frankin Bobbitt The Curriculum , was published in 1918 in a context marked by the vision that the place of education should function as a company, commercial or industrial. Like the industry, Bobbitt in his conservatism aimed that the instructional system could clearly specify the intended results, the methods, the ways of measuring to find out if such objectives were achieved. His standard of instruction was returned to the economy, and for that, it was necessary, beforehand, to establish the objectives to be achieved. His key word was “efficiency”, transferring the proposed organization prototype for Frederick Taylor to the teaching site, based on the assumptions of the scientific government. 19181924 ). His first work
Prior to Bobbitt’s publication , in the early 20th century, punctually in 1902, John Dewey published a brief experience cited “ The child and the curriculum ”, in which he criticized the curricula used in the traditional schools of the era, outlining the first steps towards preparation of a curriculum that valued the tests and the interests of the apprentices, inaugurating what came to invoke the place of teaching Novidade. Critics of Local de Ensino Novidade were radically opposed to traditional pedagogy and the way teachers were conducting the training of their students, through actions carried out mechanically.
However, the bourgeois aspect profoundly marked instruction throughout the planet, including Brazil, until the mid-1980s and brought consequences felt up to today, several times difficult to be reversed, offering the strength with which it reached the mentality of women. pastas. The curriculum was seen as a technical, official instrument, meticulously structured and designed, organized like economic interests when the training of the subject was only associated with labor. This prototype of the curriculum idealized by Bobbitt found a sound and gained strength with the studies of Ralph Tyler, who in 1949 developed the norm of instruction based on organization and development, but with a more humanistic approach, as highlighted by Antonio Flavio Moreira (1990).
It is with Tyler that the directions of the plaino curriculum in Brazil were markedly defined, followed by his disciple Hilda Taba. Furthermore, the notion of educational objectives acquires a novelty in costumes, so the objectives must be clearly defined and described, as formulated in terms of explicit ways, finding roots in behaviorism, a behavioral approach of the type, based on reaction and incitement, which culminated in a behavioral pedagogical trend throughout the 1960s. In his landmark work “Basic principles of curriculum and teaching” (1949), Tyler recommended that curriculum organization and development needed to answer four fundamental questions, namely: what educational objectives should the place of education seek to achieve? What educational essays can be offered that are likely to achieve these goals? How to organize these educational essays efficiently and how to make sure that these objectives are achieved? That is, the classic quartet, objectives, content, method and evaluation.
The curricular pattern established in the Bourgeois Theory was present in each and every level of the didactic system, certainly until the 1990s. However, before that, however, critical theorists of instruction emerged who, dissatisfied with the consequences of this pattern , question and formulate new ways of understanding and conceiving such training. The new theoreticians of the instructional scenario, like Michael Apple and Henry Giroux were not concerned with techniques for analyzing the stages of a curriculum project, but with the relationship between curriculum issues and economics, state, ideology, being able and culture. American theories at the beginning but influential in Brazil consisted of combinations of technicist and progressive convictions (Moreira, 1990, p. 85)
The satire on traditional and technicist approaches to teaching, treated as a product of the capitalist system , favored the breach of new perspectives in the instructive extension, reflecting in the constitution of a fluent, in the clod of Sociology of Instruction, focused on the study of curriculum, called Novel Sociology of Teaching (NSE), represented by Michael Apple. Of the authors of the satirical streak who engaged in studies of instruction in general norms and of the curriculum, in inherent, stand out Willian Pinar , Samuel Boyles , Herbert Gints , Michael Apple and Henry Giroux of the United States; Michael Young and Basil Bernstein of the United Kingdom; Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Claude Passeron from France; Gimeno Sacristán from Spain and Paulo Freire from Brazil (Silva, 2005).
3.5.1. Guidelines National Curriculum d the Undergraduate Nursing
Nurse, with generalist, humanistic, critical and reflective training. Qualified professional for nursing work, based on scientific and intellectual rigor and guided by ethical principles. Able to know and intervene on health-disease obstacles / situations but prevalent in the vernacular epidemiological profile, with an emphasis on its area of activity, identifying the bio-psycho-social dimensions of its determinants. Able to act, with a sense of social responsibility and commitment to citizenship, as a promoter of the integral health of human beings.
Nurse with a Degree in Nursing trained to work in Basic Education and Professional Education in Nursing.
Painting. General Skills
Health professionals, in their professional context, must be able to develop actions to prevent, promote, protect and restore health, both individually and collectively.
Any professional must certify that their practice is carried out in an integrated manner and continues with the other instances of the health system. Professionals must perform their services within the highest standards of quality and the principles of morals / bioethics, taking into account that the responsibility for health care does not end with the technical act, but with the solution of the health problem, both individually and collectively;
The work of health professionals must be based on the ability to take resolutions with a view to the propitious use, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, of the workforce, medicines, equipment, procedures and practices. For this end, they must have skills to determine, systematize and resolve the most appropriate conduct;
Health professionals must be accessible and must maintain the confidentiality of the information entrusted to them, in the interaction with other health professionals and the public in general. The news involves vocal, non-oral information and writing and writing skills; mastering at least one foreign language and information and information technologies;
In multiprofessional team work, health professionals must be able to assume leadership positions, continuously with a view to the community’s well being. Leadership involves commitment, responsibility, capacity for emotional and aesthetic understanding, ability to make resolutions, news and management effectively and efficiently;
Administration and Management
Professionals must be able to manage and govern both the workforce, physical and material resources and information, similarly, they must be able to be managers, employers or leaders in the health team;
Professionals must be able to learn incessantly, both in their training and in their practice. From, health professionals must learn to learn and have responsibility and commitment to the education and training / internships of future generations of professionals, not only transmitting knowledge, but providing conditions with the intention of having a mutual benefit between future professionals and professionals services.
Source: adapted (MEC, 2018, s / n)
For the nursing professional there must also be technical skills – scientific , ethical-political, contextualized socio-educational which allow (MEC, 2018, s / n) :
Realize Specific Skills and Abilities
· To act professionally, understanding human nature in its dimensions, expressions and evolutionary phases;
· I ncorporar science / art of caring as professional interpretation instrument;
· And establish new relationships with the social context, recognizing the structure and forms of social organization, its transformations and expressions;
· D EVELOPING technical and scientific training to confer quality to professional practice;
· C ompreender health policy in the context of social policies, recognizing the epidemiological profiles of populations;
· R ECOGNIZING health as a right and decent living conditions and act to ensure comprehensive care, understood as articulate and continuous set of actions and preventive and curative services, individual and collective, required for each case in all levels system complexity;
· To act in comprehensive health care programs for children, adolescents, women, adults and the elderly;
· S er able to diagnose and solve health problems, to communicate, to make decisions, to intervene in the work process, to work in team and to face changing situations;
· R ECOGNIZING labor relations and their influence on health;
· To act as a subject in the process of training human resources;
· R ESPONDING regional health specificities through strategically planned interventions in promotion levels, prevention and rehabilitation to health, giving full attention to the health of individuals, families and communities;
· C onsiderar cost-effective decisions of the procedures in health;
· R is ECOGNIZING work as coordinator of the nursing staff;
· To assume the ethical, humanistic and social commitment to multiprofessional health work.
Training in the Nursing course still needs to meet some social health requirements, with emphasis on (SUS – Unified Health System) and ensure the integrity of care and the quality and humanization of care. Graduation in this area requires the objective of providing the professional with the knowledge, attitudes and skills required for competence in (MEC, 2018, s / n) :
· P romoting healthy lifestyles, reconciling the needs of both your clients / patients and those of your community, acting as an agent of social transformation;
· U sar properly new technologies, both information and communication, as tip for the care of nursing;
· To act in the different scenarios of professional practice considering the assumptions of the clinical and epidemiological models;
· I identify the individual and collective health needs of the population, their conditions and determinants;
· I ntervir in the health-disease-responsible for the quality of care / nursing care at different levels of attention to health, health promotion, prevention, protection and rehabilitation of health from the perspective of complete assistance;
· P remains nursing care compatible with the different needs presented by the individual, the family and the different groups of the community;
· C ompatibilizar the professional features of the nursing staff of agents to the different demands of users;
· I ntegrar nursing actions to multidisciplinary actions;
· G erenciar the work process in nursing with the principles of Ethics and Bioethics with solving both individual and collective level in all areas of professional practice;
· P lanejar, implement and participate in continuous training and qualification of nursing and health workers programs;
· P lanejar and implement education and health promotion programs, given the specificity of the different social groups and different processes of life, health, work and illness;
· D EVELOPING participate and apply research and / or other forms of knowledge production aimed at the qualification of professional practice;
· R espeitar ethical code, the political values and normative acts of the profession;
· I nterferir the dynamics of institutional work, recognizing as an agent of that process;
· U s ing the tools to ensure the quality of nursing care and health care;
· P articipar the composition of consultative and deliberative structures of the health system;
· R ECOGNIZING the social role of nurses to work in po activities lytic and health planning.
Description of Procedures
The skills and competences on the part of the Nurse are basic and subsidiary to the actions of the nurse in the different working environments, creating an essential cycle of the work of generalist nurses from which they may arise from other actions according to the project of the undergraduate course in nursing, being in charge of coordinating the care process, considering health contexts and demands (MEC, 2018, s / n) :
· C correlating data, events and events to determine actions, procedures, strategies and their performers;
· I mplementando actions, procedures and nursing strategies evaluating the quality and impact of its results;
· P romoving, generating and disseminating knowledge through research and other forms of knowledge production that sustain and improve practice;
· The ssessorando organs, enterprises and ins tutions in health projects.
As the main items for the Nursing Undergraduate Course, they must be linked to the entire health-disease process of the citizen, the family and the community, integrated with the epidemiological and professional reality, offering the integrality of nursing care actions. These items comprise the following thematic areas to know (MEC, 2018, s / n) :
Biological and Social Bases of Nursing
Biological and Health Sciences – this topic of study includes the contents (theoretical and practical) of Morphology, Physiology, Pharmacology, Pathology (aggression and defense), Cellular and Molecular Biology, Nutrition, Public Health and Environmental Health / Ecology .
Human Sciences – This work item includes the contents of Anthropology, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology, Communication and Education.
· Fundamentals of Nursing: this topic of study includes technical, methodological content and the means and instruments inherent to the work of Nurses and Nursing at an individual and collective level, including: History of Nursing; Nursing Exercise (Bioethics, Professional Ethics and Legislation); Epidemiology; Biostatistics; Computing;
Nursing Semiology and Semiotics and Research Methodology.
· Nursing Assistance: this topic of study includes the contents (theoretical and practical) that make up Nursing assistance at the individual and collective level provided to children, adolescents, adults, women and the elderly.
· Nursing Administration: this topic of study includes the contents (theoretical and practical) of the administration of the nursing work process and nursing care, prioritizing general and specialized hospitals, outpatient clinics and the basic network of health services.
· Nursing Education: this topic of study includes the contents relevant to the pedagogical training of nurses, regardless of the Nursing Degree.
The curricular disciplines, the competences and the skills to be understood and acquired in the nurse’s graduation should give it an academic and / or professional purpose and capacity, considering the prevalent and priority demands and needs of the population according to the epidemiological image of the country / area.
This system of competences has to promote in the apprentice and the nurse the capacity for independent and permanent intellectual and professional development.
Complementary Internships and Activities
During the training of the Nurse, more than theories and practices applied during the training, it is the obligation of the courses to include in the curriculum the supervised internship in general and specialized hospitals, outpatient clinics, basic network of health services and communities (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
In the creation of the program and during the student’s supervision process, in an internship supervised by the teacher, an effective participation of the nurse of the health service is guaranteed, where the referred internship takes place, with a minimum of 500 hours, done during the last semesters of the course in Nursing (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
Complementary activities must be added throughout the Nursing Undergraduate Course and Universities must offer mechanisms for the use of knowledge, acquired by the student, through independent studies and practices in person and / or at a distance (MEC, 2018, s / n ) .
The following can be recognized:
· Monitoring and Internships,
· Scientific Initiation Programs;
· Extension Programs;
· Complementary Studies;
· Courses taken in other related areas.
The Undergraduate Nursing Course must have a pedagogical project, created by a collective, centered on the student as a learning subject and supported by the teacher as a facilitator and mediator of the teaching-learning process (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
Learning must be interpreted as a means that enables the social subject to convert and convert his context. It must be followed by the methodological principle by a general rule, which must be translated by action-reflection-action and which points to the solution of situations-obstacles as one of the didactic means (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
This educational project should seek the integral and appropriate training of the student through a pronouncement between teaching, search and extension / assistance (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
However, research should be an integral part of the academic training of nurses. It should induce the implementation of scientific beginning programs, providing the apprentice with the development of his originality and satire study (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
The curricular instructions for the undergraduate nursing course should contribute to innovation and the quality of the instructive project of the course Compra de Diplomas, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente. Thus, curriculum guidelines and instructional design should guide the curriculum of the undergraduate nursing course to an academic and professional profile of the graduate.
The organization of the undergraduate nursing course should be defined by the respective collegiate body of the course, which will indicate the model: annual series, semi-annual series , credit or joint system (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
To complete the undergraduate nursing course, the apprentice must prepare a work under the guidance of a teacher (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
Teacher Training through Full Degree will be regulated in specific Opinions / Resolutions by the Higher Education Chamber of the National Education Council (MEC, 2018, s / n) .
The course structure should ensure
· The medium between teaching, research and extension / assistance, guaranteeing critical, reflective and creative teaching Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente, which will build the desired profile, stimulating the realization of experiments and / or research; socializing the knowledge produced, taking into account the epistemological evolution of the explanatory models of the health / disease process (MEC, 2018, s / n) ;
· The theoretical and practical activities present since the beginning of the course, permeating all the training of the Nurse, in an integrated and interdisciplinary way;
· The vision of educating for citizenship and full participation in society;
· The principles of institutional autonomy, flexibility, study / work integration and plurality in the curriculum;
· The implementation of methodology in the teaching-learning process that encourages the teacher to think about social truth and learn to learn;
· The definition of pedagogical methods that articulate discovery; discovering how to do and discovering how to live together Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente, with a view to developing learning to learn, learning to be, learning to do, learning to exist together and learning to know, which are essential attributes for the nurse’s training;
· The incitement to active work in groups, favor the collective discussion and interpersonal relationships;
· The valorization of the ethical and humanistic dimensions, developing in the pupil and the nurse attitudes and values oriented towards citizenship and camaraderie;
· The pronouncement of the Nursing Graduation with the Nursing Degree;
· The tribute to the understanding, translation, preservation, reinforcement, promotion and dissemination of national and regional, international and historical cultures, in a context of pluralism and educational fluctuation Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diplomas, Comprar Diploma Quente.